ASSESSMENT OF COMMON WHEAT QUALITY IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE-minireview

Valeria Gagiu, Elena Mateescu, Nastasia Belc

Abstract The study aimed to assess common wheat quality in Romania in the context of climate change to identify adaptation measures and ensure the sustainability of the agri-food system. The negative effects of extreme weather events on cereals are manifested starting from the field by affecting the quantitative and qualitative crop indicators, which leads to the decrease of the trade indicators and, therefore to a potential threat for regional agri- food suppliers. The research put a special emphasis on common wheat grown in agricultural regions with a high risk of contamination with the fungi Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Scientific results will contribute to raising awareness of the climate change effects on the agri-food chain by beneficiaries in scientific research, agricultural production, trade and regulatory authorities. Scientific data are inputs for future projects on the use of artificial intelligence in agriculture and the establishment and/or updating of the risk envelope in the agri-food sector.

Keywords: wheat indicators, bread wheat quality, risk assessment, climate change

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THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FUSARIUM SPP. AND DEOXYNIVALENOL CONTAMINATION IN WHEAT IN THE MILLING-BAKERY SECTOR - minireview

Valeria Gagiu, Elena Mateescu, Nastasia Belc

Abstract: Climate change affects the quantity and quality of wheat harvests with effects on food safety and security. Consequently, companies must develop and implement appropriate strategies, starting with the acquisition of grains and continuing with the reception, milling of grains and processing of intermediate products, storage and distribution-trade of final products. This research addresses the impact of climate change on the milling-bakery sector in which the optimization of classic and modern technologies will strengthen the economic advantages of companies.

Key words:wheat, toxigenic fungi, optimization of milling technology, climate change

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EVALUATION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC ACTIVITY OF AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS ISOLATED FROM POTATO LEAVES

Mihaela Monica Dinu, Ana Cristina Fătu, Narcisa Băbeanu

Abstract:This study aimed to evaluate the potential of an endophytic fungal isolate from potato leaves for biological pest control. The isolate, maintained in the RDIPP Bucharest Collection of entomopathogenic microorganisms, was identified as Beauveria sp. based on morphological characteristics. Laboratory bioassays investigated its pathogenicity against the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758). We employed a spray application of conidia suspensions at various concentrations. The highest mortality of T. molitor was observed at a concentration of 10⁸ conidia/ml. These results demonstrate the entomopathogenic potential of the Beauveria sp. isolate and suggest 10⁸ conidia/ml as a promising concentration for further investigation. Further studies are warranted to validate its efficacy against target insect pests under field conditions.

Key words:endophytic, entomopathogenic, Bassiana, potato, Tenebrio

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WEED CONTROL-AN ESSENTIAL TECHNOLOGICAL STEP IN SPRING BARLEY CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

Felicia CHEŢAN, Cornel CHEŢAN, Teodor RUSU, Ioan GAGA, Alina ȘIMON, Ioana CRIȘAN, Florin RUSSU

Abstract: Spring barley is sensitive to weeding especially in the early stages of vegetation (sprouting-flowering-first internode), in the absence of effective crop maintenance measures it loses out in weeds fight and yield is considerably reduced. The research carried out at Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda in the years 2022 and 2023 aimed to know the dependence of technological factors and climatic conditions on the culture and yield of spring barley. The predominant weeds in the crop were dicotyledonous species. Control was carried out with 0.12 l/ha product based on amidosulfuron 100 g/l + iodosulfuron-methyl-Na 25 g/l + mefenpyr diethyl 250 g/l (safener) + 0.6 l/ha product based on 2,4 D acid from DMA salt. The results showed the effectiveness of weed control treatments and the suitability of spring barley for no-tillage system, with yields exceeding 5000 kg/ha in both experimental years.

Key words: spring barley, weeds, clime, yield

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RESULTS ON THE DETERMINATIONS OF THE HONEY POTENTIAL OF BUCKWHEAT FLOWERS FROM THE CORNETU BEE

Mirela Drăgan, Silvana Mihaela Dănăilă-Guidea, Gabriela-Lucia Mărgărit, Ștefana Jurcoane

Abstract. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a pseudocereal species that can be successfully cultivated in various climatic zones, including in Romania. Buckwheat is a valuable crop for Romania, both for its edible seeds with special nutritional properties, and for its contribution to the production of honey from organic crops. The present study describes the results obtained during the monitoring of a cover crop with buckwheat plants, established in a stationary apiary in Cornetu commune (in the southwest of Ilfov county, Romania). Experiments were carried out in order to identify some schemes with land cover plants and their valorization for the sustainable development of honey crops and later incorporation by mechanical plowing in the field, after the October 2023 flowering period. The establishment of the culture was carried out in June, and the determinations regarding the nectariferous potential of buckwheat were carried out during the flowering period of August 2023. In the case of determining the nectariferous potential of buckwheat, the capillary method was used, as the direct method for dosing nectar. The results obtained from the quantitative (mg/flower) and qualitative (% sugar) determinations of the nectar secretion accumulated in 24 hours in 50 flowers/inflorescence served to establish the honey production per unit of surface. Thus, on the one hand, the amount of sugar in mg/flower was obtained, and on the other hand, the evaluation of the number of flowers per hectare. The values determined by the glycemic index for the nectar of buckwheat flowers varied from 0.1 mg/flower to 0.25 mg/flower between reference hours 9 and 18. The present paper integrates both the proposals and the development objectives proposed to the partners involved in the project (beekeepers and farmers but also the rural society), as well as the results of our own research on the territory of the basic apiary in order to ensure the territorial balance.

Keywords: buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) sustainable agricultural practices, honeydew plant.

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RESEARCH ON THE SELECTIVITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE HERBICIDE ISOXAFLUTOLE + CYPROSULFAMIDE IN THE CHICKPEA CROP IN THE PEDOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MOARA DOMNEASCĂ

Valentin-Marius Ciontu, Marga Grădilă, Daniel Jalobă, Raluca Monica Cristea, Mihai Gîdea

Abstract: Chickpea is a small plant with a slow growth rate in its young growth phase, so it gives weeds the opportunity to take over its nutritional spectrum easely. In order to evaluate the effects of the herbicide isoxaflutole 240g/l + cyprosulfamide 240g/l (safener) on weed control in chickpea fields, the experiment was located at Moara Domnească in 2023 in randomised blocks in 4 replicates.  The treatments included application of the herbicide in different doses and different times of crop vegetation in pre-emergence, early post-emergence (at 8-10 cm tall) and post-emergence (at 16-18 cm tall). The determination of weeds in the untreated version was done as persentage of soil coverage when the chickpea was around 8-10 cm tall. Acording to the results, the best yields were obtained when the herbicide was applied post-emergent at the rate of 0.18 l/ha when the crop was around 8-10 cm and pre-emergent at the rates of 0.3 and 0.2 for which yields between 1364 and 1325 kg/ha were obtained. The most severe forms of phytotoxicity that prevented the chickpea crop were present when the herbicide was applied at a rate of 0.18 and 0.36 l/ha when the chickpea was 16-18 cm tall and at the rate of 0.36 l/ha when the chickpea was 8-10 cm tall, with EWRS scores ranging from 2 to 5.

Keywords: chickpea, herbicide, selectivity, yield.

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IN VITRO ANTAGONIST ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS SPP. STRAINS AGAINST BOTRYTIS CINEREA IN STRAWBERRY CROP

Maria - Cristina Lumînare, Oana - Alina Boiu - Sicuia, Daniel Nicolae Cojanu, Lavinia - Diana – Nicoleta Buturugă - Barbu, Stelica Cristea 

Abstract. The in vitro antagonistic activity of ten beneficial bacterial strains, including Bacillus subtilis (LC14), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (LC13), Bacillus cereus/thuringiensis (LC1, LC2, LC4, LC5 and LC8), Bacillus safensis (LC7), Paenibacillus castaneae (LC6) and Paenibacillus lautus (LC3), against the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea, which causes grey mold in strawberry crops, was investigated. The ability of Bacillus spp. strains to inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea was determined using a dual culture method and radial growth was measured at intervals of 5, 10, 15, and 18 days. The results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (LC13) and Bacillus subtilis (LC14) were effective in suppressing the vegetative growth of Botrytis cinerea, while the other Bacillus spp. strains, as well as Paenibacillus castaneae (LC6) and Paenibacillus lautus (LC3), did not affect the growth of the fungus. These findings demonstrate the potential of specific strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (LC13) and Bacillus subtilis (LC14) to act as efficient biocontrol agents against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry crops. Further studies should focus on field trials to assess the practical application of these beneficial bacteria in controlling grey mold.

Key words: Bacillus subtilis, Botrytis cinerea, antagonism, strawberry

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INFLUENCE OF SOWING TIME ON THE OCCURRENCE OF ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT, RUST AND BROOMRAPE ON SUNFLOWER

Ioan Radu, Lorena-Roxana Gurău

Abstract: The occurrence of Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria helianthi), rust (Puccinia helianthi) and broomrape (Orobanche cumana) on six sunflower hybrids were assessed to notice the effect of sowing time (ST). ST was set taking into account the Celsius degrees at the soil depth of 7 cm: ST1 at 5oC, ST2 at 7oC and ST3 at 9oC. The research was performed in the field experiments in Tulcea county in 2021 under rainfed conditions. Observations on the attack intensity (% of the leaves area) have done after the flowering period for A. helianthi and P. helianthi while for O. cumana the damage was estimated by calculating attack frequency at ripening. Similar results were obtained at the attack of A. helianthi for ST1 and ST2 while at ST3 the intensity was lower. The attack of P. helianthi increased upon the sowing delay. The attack of O. cumana was influenced by the resistance of the hybrid and not by the ST.

Key words: sunflower, fungal diseases, broomrape, sowing time

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CURRENT APPROACHES TO PREVENTION AND INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL ON MAIZE CROP IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE – mini review

Andrei CHIRILOAIE-PALADE*, Raluca-Gabriela GEORGESCU

Abstract: Maize is a staple crop that plays a key role in global food security. It is a primary source of food for millions of people and provides essential raw materials for various industries, including animal feed and biofuel production. However, maize cultivation faces increasing challenges in the 21st century, in particular the negative impact of climate change. As our planet undergoes rapid climate change, the agricultural sector must adapt to ensure consistent and sustainable maize production. One of the critical challenges posed by climate change is the proliferation of pests that threaten maize crops. Rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and shifting ecological balances create favorable conditions for pests, allowing them to develop and evolve at an alarming rate. These changes not only compromise the quality and quantity of maize crops, but also increase dependence on plant protection treatments, which can have harmful effects on the environment and human health.

Keywords: climate change, integrated pest management, maize

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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME BACTERIAL STRAINS FROM DIPTERAN LARVAE

Daniel-Nicolae Cojanu, Oana-Alina, Boiu-Sicuia, Maria-Cristina Lumînare, Ana-Cristina Fătu, Lavinia Diana Barbu-Buturugă, Călina Petruța Cornea

Abstract: The isolation of agronomically beneficial bacteria usually involve the collection of samples from various natural sources, followed by the subsequent use of selective culture techniques. This is not always a straightforward process, due to various reasons, including their reduce concentration level in nature, the difficulty of separating them from the consortia in which they are naturally integrated in the environment, the overgrowth of other competing microorganisms, or even their fastidious way of in vitro multiplication. The aim of this work was to identify six bacterial strains that could have potential biotechnological applications, either as agro-inoculants or in environmental protection. These bacterial strains, named LvD1, LvD2, LvD3, LvD4, LvD5, and LvD6 were isolated from dead larvae of Calliphora vomitoria. Their identification at specie level was made based on their physiological profile using Biolog GEN III technique. The LvD1 strains, was identified as Acinetobacter guillouiae, a bacterial species highly valuable in bioremediation and biocontrol. Another strain, LvD3 was identified as Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial species mentioned as biocontrol agent, as well as a plant growth promoter, while LvD4 was identified as Enterococcus faecalis, another bacterial species with plant growth promoting features. However, complementary studies are needed to evaluate the activity of these strains and their attributes in biotechnological processes.

Keywords: bacteria, Calliphora vomitoria, fly larvae, phenotypic identification, plant growth promotion

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THE CONTROL OF BLACK ROT Guignardia bidwelli –A DANGEROUS FUNGAL DISEASE OF GRAPEVINE

Marian Lixandru, Sergiu Fendrihan

Abstract: This pathogen, which are producing the black rot of grapevine Guignardia bidwelii (Ellis) Viala and Ravaz, and its anamorph Phyllosticta ampelicida (Engelman) van der Aa, is an ascomycete fungus that is responsible for about 5 to 80% production losses in grapevine cultures, although it is less frequent than other fungal diseases from this crop. In the present work, we review the problems related to this pathogen, its life cycle, virulence factors and mode of action, and especially the prevention of the infection and ways to control it, its spread in the world and in our country, We discuss practical considerations for control methods of the black rot, agrotechnical methods, genetical methods, chemical (fungicides, natural products the use of plant resistance stimulators), and biological control.

Key words: black rot, Guignardia bidwelii, Phyllosticta ampelicida, prevention of infection, control methods

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EFFECT OF THE SOWING SEASON AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON WEEDS IN SOYBEAN CROP

Alina ȘIMON, Raluca REZI, Camelia URDĂ, Marius BĂRDAȘ, Adrian CECLAN, Florin RUSSU, Felicia CHEȚAN, Alin POPA

Abstract: Weed competition for water, light and nutrients can cause yield losses of up to 80-90% if effective weed reduction measures are not taken in the soybean crop. Research on the influence of sowing time on the degree of weeding of soybeans was carried out at the Turda Agricultural Research and Development Station, during 2021- 2023. The dominant dicotyledonous species were Chenopodium album, Hibiscus trionum, Polygonum convolvulus, Xanthium strumarium, and for the monocotyledonous species Setaria glauca and Echinochloa crus-galli were identified, both in the first and the second sowing season, the difference between the two sowing season being given by the total number of species and the number of weeds identified per plot. The soybean crop was removed from weeds by the two swaths, and the plant was re-weeded with the same species as in the spring after the flowering period. Weeds that appeared during the latter part of the soybean growing season did not cause any significant harm to the crop. The number of weeds per plot and soybean yield were influenced by the sowing season and climatic conditions. The best outcome was achieved when soybeans were sown during the first season.

Keywords: weeds, sowing season, yield, soybean

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IMPORTANT ARTHROPOD PESTS ON ORNAMENTAL MARIGOLD (TAGETES PATULA NANA) IN SOUTHERN ROMANIAN GREENHOUSES

Ana – Maria VÎRTEIU, Ramona ȘTEF, Codruța CHIȘ, Ioana GROZEA

Abstract: Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) are among the most popular annual plants, decorative by flowers, belonging to the Asteraceae family, native to North and South America. It is cultivated mainly for ornamental and medicinal purposes, since in the last period of time it has been cultivated on increasingly large areas as a trap plant in organic farming and in the polyculture system. This paper aims to identify the major arthropod fauna present on this ornamental plant, in a greenhouse from Mehedinți County, in the year 2022, the period before commercialization. The experimental field was located at a greenhouse in the Pristol area, Mehedinți County. Three varieties were used in the experiment: Delia, Flacăra and Bonita mix. The biological material was collected with the help of direct observation method and shaking method. In the year 2022, a total number of 271 specimens of insects and mites were collected from the marigold crop located in the Pristol greenhouse, of which the highest numbers of specimens, 104, were being registered with the Bonita Mix variety. Analyzing the evolution of arthropod pest species, it can be highlighted that the largest number of specimens belonged to the Tetranychus urticae species - 100 specimens, of which the most (41) were collected from the Bonita Mix variety and the fewest (25) from Delia.

Keywords: arthropod, pests, Tagetes patula var. nana, greenhouse

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THE INFLUENCE OF SOME BACTERIAL STRAINS ON THE GERMINATION OF GREEN SORREL SEEDS (RUMEX ACETOSA L.)

 

Lavinia-Diana-Nicoleta BUTURUGĂ-BARBU, Cristina Maria LUMÂNARE, Daniel-Nicolae COJANU, Sorina DINU, Oana-Alina BOIU-SICUIA, Narcisa BĂBEANU

Abstract. Sorrel is a versatile herbaceous plant, present in the spontaneous flora of Romania. It is valued for its leaves with a sour taste and is used in various culinary preparations. Currently, the species is appreciated for the production of "microgreens" type seedlings. Despite its recent popularity, sorrel is a difficult plant to grow, not because of its special nutritional requirements, but because of the limited ability of the seeds to germinate. The present study brings to attention the beneficial traits of seed treatments, with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The aim of such seed treatments was to improve the germination capacity of green sorrel seeds and establish the optimal inoculum concentration. The seed treatment was applied by immersion, in three different concentrations: 107, 108, and 109 cfu/ml respectively. Two bacterial strains were tested as inoculants, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OS17 strain and Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum DSM5892 reference strain. Plants were analyzed four weeks after germination to determine fresh and dry weight, number of true leaves, and root length. Both tested bacterial strains, B. amyloliquefaciens OS17 and P. myrsinacearum DSM5892 improved sorrel seed germination and stimulated seedling growth. Best results were obtained using 109 cfu/ml inoculant. The seed treatment with P. myrsinacearum DSM5892, at 109 cfu/ml, registered the highest number of true leaves and roots length. The beneficial effects of this seed treatment were also highlighted by the increase in plant fresh and dry weight.

Keywords: bacteria, green sorrel, germination, growth promotion, seed inoculation

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ASSESSMENT OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITY OF THE SPECIES CICHORIUM INTYBUS AND XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM

Lorena-Roxana Gurău, Ioan Radu, Daniel Jalobă, Andreea Coșoveanu, Leonard Ilie

Abstract. Hydrocarbon polluted agricultural areas contain spontaneous plants possibly involved in the soil bioremediation process. This study highlights the diversity of the endophyte microfungal community of Cichorium intybus and Xanthium strumarium, the dominant plant species in a hydrocarbon- contaminated area in the Prahova region, in September 2020. Plants release organic compounds through roots, which increase the density, diversity and activity of specific microorganisms that in turn degrade hydrocarbons. For the isolation of endophyte fungi, fragments of roots were used, the plant organ being sectioned in the basal, median and apical area. The nutrient medium (PDA) was fined with diesel and motor oil to 1 mg/l. There were obtained 92 endophyte fungal strains, which following the observation procedures of morphological similarity, namely elements of shape, texture and color of the colonies, as well as mycelium and spores under the microscope, 39 different morphologically different strains resulted. To partially characterize the ecological aspects of the endophyte fungal communities in the two plants, from two locations contaminated with hydrocarbons, considering three root areas, Margalef diversity indices, Shannon, Simpson's dominance and frequency of colonization were used. The diversity expressed by the Shannon index indicated a superior net value for the endophyte fungal communities of C. intybus (Shannon_H= 3.0) compared to X. strumarium (Shannon_H= 2.0). The same host plant, C. intybus, was also noted for the richness of the species, the value of the Margalef index being 6.6, compared to X. strumarium, where the index had a value of 2.9. The dominance of endophyte fungal communities showed similar values in both plants. These preliminary results point to a higher diversity of endophyte fungal communities in the host species Cichorium intybus, colonized by the highest number of different organizational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared to the other host plant Xanthium strumarium (i.e 28 versus 11).

Keywords: endophytic fungi diversity, bioremediation, spontaneous flora

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THE CURRENT STATE OF THE ART ON THE DIETS USED FOR REARING OF APHIDOPHAGOUS PREDATORS OF THE COCCINELLIDAE FAMILY- A MINI-REVIEW

Raluca Gabriela  Georgescu, Mădălina Rădulea, Ionuț Cristian Popa, Andrei Chiriloaie-Palade, Maria Iamandei

Abstract: Biological control of plant pests using natural enemies is nowadays considered a viable alternative method to chemical control. There are numerous naturally occurring bio-control agents that can be selected for rearing and used to control agricultural pests. The study brings up to date the knowledge regarding the species of aphidophagous species in the Coccinellidae family already known as Biological Control Agents reared/commercially available or used in various pest control program worldwide. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of existing rearing methods, we reviewed a variety of research papers and specialized literature that investigated various approaches, including reliance on natural hosts, artificial diets, factitious hosts or combination of them. Also, we pointed out the existing research challenges, and outlines directions for research in Coccinellidae rearing programs.

Keywords: Biological control agents, aphidophagous Coccinellidae, predators, mass-rearing, diets

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THE NORWAY MAPLE APHID - PERIPHYLLUS LYROPICTUS (KESSLER) (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) REDISCOVERED IN BĂNEASA- BUCUREȘTI AREA (SOUTH ROMANIA)

Constantina Chireceanu, Andrei Teodoru

Abstract: The paper reports the rediscovery of the aphid Periphyllus lyropictus on the Norway maple Acer platanoides in northern part of Bucharest (Băneasa area) in southern Romania, after more than 50 years from the first record of the species in this zone. Aphid colonies varying in size, consisting of apterous forms in various instars, and mixed colonies of wingless and winged morphs were recorded on the lower and upper sides of the Norway maple leaves throughout the season. Parasitized aphids were observed in autumn. Parasitoid specimens emerged by rearing in the laboratory were assigned to the genus Trioxys. We consider that P. lyropictus is widespread in the country, mainly in association with the Norway maple, and assume that it went unnoticed for a long period after the 70s.

Key words: Periphyllus lyropictus, Acer platanoides, Băneasa - București

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