BIOCONTROL OF POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DISEASES BY MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS -minireview
Abstract. This papersummarizes the data on use of antagonistic microorganisms as biocontrol agents against fungal phytopathogensthat affects postharvest fruits and vegetables. The useof synthetic fungicides has been the dominant control strategy for diseases caused by fungi.However, their excessive and inappropriate use in intensive agriculture has created problemsthat have led to environmental contamination, considerable residues in agricultural products, andphytopathogen resistance. Therefore, there is a need to generate alternatives that are safe, ecological,and economically viable to face this problem. Inhibition of phytopathogen in fruit/vegetableutilizing antagonistic microorganisms as biological control agents (BCA) could represent aviable and environmentally safe alternative to synthetic fungicides.
Keywords: postharvest, biocontrol,microbial antagonists, biological control agents
THE WALNUT SHIELD BEARER COPTODISCA LUCIFLUELLA (CLEMENS, 1860) (LEPIDOPTERA: HELIOZELIDAE) – THE FIRST RECORD IN ROMANIA
Constantina Chireceanu,* Roxana-Violeta Mustățea, Andrei Teodoru.
Abstract: The invasive species Coptodisca lucifluella, also called the walnut shield bearer is recorded for the first time in Romania in this report. It is a leaf miner of North American origin, having been discovered for the first time in Europe (Italy) in 2010. Since then it has been confirmed in other three European countries, Hungary (2017), Ukraine (2019) and Bulgaria (2020), and now in Romania. In its native habitats, the species is known to be specialized on woody plants from the family Juglandaceae, genus Carya, in particular the pecan nut tree, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. In the newly occupied territories in Europe, the moth was reported mainly on Juglans spp., especially J. regia (L.) (with very few instances on Juglans nigra (L.), Carya spp. and Pterocarya spp.). In August 2022, leaves of common walnut (J. regia) with mines of C. lucifluella were collected in Southern Romania (Bucharest, Ilfov and Giurgiu Counties) and Western Romania (Arad County). The walnuts were in cities, rural areas, alongside roads and walnuts spontaneously grown in vineyards, at altitudes from 60 to 200 m a.s.l.
Key words: Coptodisca lucifluella, leaf miner moth, mines, common walnut, invasive species
ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITY OF ALIEN Nicotiana glauca IN TENERIFE, CANARY ISLANDS
Guacimara Espinel*, Cristina Gimenez, Raimundo Cabrera
Abstract:Nicotianaglauca it is naturally distributed throughout South America. It was introduced in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania and arrived to the Canary Islands as an ornamental plant, where has been invading altered soils. Endophytic fungi are known to produce active compounds that provide protection to their host against diseases and attack of herbivores, these microorganisms being an interesting source of novel molecules. So far, the endophytic fungal communities of Nicotianahave not been studied in the Canary Islands. The goal of this study is to evaluate the diversity of the fungal endophytes community associated with Nicotianaglauca. A total of 36 fungal species were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of plants collected in three locations from Tenerife Island - San Miguel de Abona, Fasnia and Puerto de la Cruz. The highest species richness values were found in leaves and stems (Margalef index = 3.33 and 3.36, respectively) versus roots (Margalef index = 2.52). Simpson's index complements the results of the Margalef index, indicating a fungal community with a high dominance value in roots (D = 0.65) due to the presence of multiple Fusarium species. Fungal community in Fasnia had the highest value of species richness (Margalef index = 3.69 versus 2.17 and 2.27 for San Miguel de Abona and Puerto de la Cruz, respectively). Results indicate fungal specificity to organ and location with 13 genera isolated from a single location and organ, among which rare species like Collariellaand Gelasinospora. In this study was detected and isolated for the first time in Canary Islands the fungal species Collariellahilkhuijsenii which is of importance for the ecology of this genus scarcely known. Special attention should be offered to the presence of Fusarium, which possibly relates to the alkaloid production ability of both, the plant and the fungal strains.
Key words: fungal communities, alien plant, diversity, Volcanic Island.
MICROFUNGAL COMMUNITY FROM ORGANICALLY AMMENDED SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMON BEAN AND BELL PEPPER CROPS
Ioan Radu1, Lorena - Roxana Gurau, Emilian Mirea, Alexandru Cristian Toader
Abstract:Soil is a reservoir of microorganisms including microfungi that play a key role as saprotrophs, plant mutualists, symbionts, decomposers, pathogens and excellent bio-indicators of soil quality. The diversity of soil fungi communities is influenced by products used in the life cycle of each crop. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of soil fungal community in bean and bell pepper crop. For pepper crop two plant protection methods were applied - i) diatomite in three different doses: 75 kg ha-1 (T1), 150 kg ha-1 (T2), and 300 kg ha-1 (T3) and ii) biological control agent Trichodermaasperellum Td85 strain (T4). For bean crop the T4 was not applied. After soil isolation for bean crop resulted 461 colonies clustered in 49 OTUs while for pepper resulted 436 colonies clustered in 56 OTUs. Pepper crop had a higher activity of soil fungi compared to bean crop, fact evidenced by a higher index of Simpson 1-D (evenness), Shannon (richness and the evenness) and Margalef (richness) tests. Even if treatment with Trichoderma sp. wasn`t applied on bean crop, the fungus was present in the soil naturally and had the highest value of CF% (colonization frequency).
Key words: soil microorganisms, integrated pest management, biological control agent
ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE COLORED TRAPS EFFECTIVENESS IN MONITORING EPICOMETIS HIRTA (PODA, 1761) IN RAPESEED CROPS
Ana - Maria Vîrteiu*, Mihaela Rof, Ioana Grozea
Abstract: In our country, the growing demand for rapeseed, both for the production of biodiesel, but especially for the food sector, together with the European Union's restrictions on genetically modified soybeans crops were the engine for the expansion of areas cultivated with rapeseed. The practice of super-intensive agriculture, together with farmers' orientation to profit, have had major consequences on biodiversity, causing a higher incidence of pests and an increased virulence of diseases. In this context, in recent years, in western Romania, where the rapeseed crops are extended over very large areas, an increase in pest populations was observed, mainly Epicometis hirta during the flowering period, producing great damage in years of invasion, reducing the crop yield. This paper presents the results of comparative studies regarding the effectiveness of different chromatic traps with attractant solution in monitoring the E. hirta species in 2021 in a rapeseed experimental field located at a farm in the Carani area (45°54′33″N/21°9′38″E), Timiș County. The number of individuals collected with blue colored traps was higher than in the case of those collected with white traps and statistically significant differences were found (p=0.009 < 0.05).
Keywords: Epicometis hirta, colored traps, effectiveness, attractant solution
THE EVOLUTION OF THE METCALFA PRUINOSA, NEZARA VIRIDULA AND HALYOMORPHA HALYS SPECIES SINCE THE FIRST REPORTING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN ROMANIA
Ioana Grozea*, Maria Alina Costea, Ramona Stef, Ana Maria Virteiu
Abstract: After more years since the first notification, the following species of pests Metcalfa pruinosa, Nezara viridula and Halyomorpha halys are still present in agroecosystems in Romania. The high polyphagism, the easy adaptability to new areas and host plant species as well as the lack of a well-defined strategy to fight are characteristics that have contributed to maintaining an active population that still produces damage. Through the present paper, we have proposed to bring attention to their evolution since their first signalling on various plant species from various agroecosystems. We also focused on the current analysis of the numerical level of the active and inactive stages and the damages produced in agricultural and horticultural crops in the west of the country, in period 2020-2022. As a result of the evolution study, it was found that all 3 targeted species are still present on a large number of plant species from agro-horticultural crops composition (both in open or closed spaces). The active (nymphs and adults) and inactive (eggs) stages were observed on the analysed plants and their level was high especially in the species of M. pruinosa and H. halys, while the species of N. viridula species, registered a slight decrease. Thus, the damages produced were commensurate with the numerical level. Continuous monitoring of these highly agile polyphagous pests is necessary to prevent the gradual increase in populations in public places (parks) and the extension to plants in agroecosystems.
Keywords: Metcalfa pruinosa, Nezara viridula, Halyomorpha halys, agroecosystems, evolution, host plant.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTINSTITUTE FOR PLANT PROTECTION TO THE FIRST DETECTION OF INVASIVE INSECT PEST SPECIESIN ROMANIA
Roxana-Violeta Mustățea, Andrei Teodoru,Constantina Chireceanu*
Abstract: The global phenomenon of biological invasion is a prevailing and important subject of research, with major negative social and economic consequences, representing a real threat for the native biodiversity of invaded countries. The main elements that favour the entering and spreading of invasive insect pest species intonew territories are the intensive trade of goods between different regions, tourism and the on-going climate changes which are predicted to become more severe. Early detection and monitoring of the invasive organisms are essential steps ofthe foundation of an appropriate and efficient management. The problem of alien invasive species,especially those of agricultural importance, has been an on-going concern for the community of researchers at the Research and Development Institute for Plant Protection in Bucharest, Romania, who have made it the subject of numerous studies and research papers published and incorporated in national and international journals and projects.
Key words: Invasive insectspecies, first record,damage, Bucharest.
NEW DATA ON KNOWLEDGE OF PEST ENTOMOFAUNA AND ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOR RAPESEED, SUNFLOWER AND CORN CROPS
Elena Trotuș, Carmen Mincea, Paula-Lucelia Pintilie, Roxana-Georgiana Amarghioalei, Roxana Zaharia
Abstract: In the period 2019-2022, at A.R.D.S. Secuieni through the implementation of the ADER 2.2.1. project, the series of observations and determinations on appearance and evolution of harmful entomofauna in rapeseed, sunflower and corn crops continued. The pests monitoring was carried out by ground surveys with a metric frame (25/25 cm), yellow bowl traps, Barber and yellow glue traps from crop emergence until plants mature. The collected material was subjected to a mathematical analysis to calculate the ecological parameters: abundance (A), dominance (D), constancy (C) and the index of ecological significance (W) which highlight the characteristics of the analyzed biocenosis. Recorded data showed that in rapeseed, the harmful entomofauna included 20 pest species that totalled on average 1207 specimens per year, whose abundance had maximum values of 523 specimens/year at the species Ceuthorynchus pallidactylus. The rapeseed species were classified into four classes of dominance, four classes of constancy and five classes of the ecological significance index. In sunflower, the harmful entomofauna consisted of 16 species, which totalled an average of 504 specimens annually, with abundance values between 1 and 182 specimens. Of the 16 species, three were classified in the D5 dominance class, two in the D4 class, five in the D3 class, and six in the D1 class as well as in classes C1 and C2. In terms of the index of ecological significance, Harpalus sp. fell into the W3 class, the rest of species being into the W1 and W2 classes. In corn, the entomofauna was also composed of 16 species totalling an average of 3720 specimens/year. The species Diabrotica virgifera virgifera had the highest abundance (2388 specimens) classified in the class of D5 dominance, C3 constancy and W5 index of ecological significance. The entomofauna harmful to rapeseed, sunflower and corn crops is quite numerous in terms of species and specimens number, which requires permanent monitoring and the application of appropriate measures to prevent attacks and control.
Key words: abundance, dominance, constancy, index of ecological significance
PROTECTION OF THE APRICOT CROP AGAINST DISEASES IN THE OSTROV FRUIT GROWING AREA
Daniel Jalobă, Marga Grădilă, Valentin-Marius Ciontu, Raluca Monica Cristea Research
Abstract: Due to its physiological, ecological and technological peculiarities of the species, apricot culture involves a whole series of challenges and requires special attention and fruit growers’ skillness. Being an early flowering plant, sensitive to various diseases and pests, root asphyxiation, spring frosts and other unfavorable factors, yields are often reduced and are a factor that is limiting the areas and farmers' interest in the expansion and development of this crop. Also, the complex of diseases and pests to which this culture is exposed may cause the manifestation of the enigmatic disease called apoplexy or premature demise of the apricot. The paper highlights the importance and special role of effective disease control in an apricot orchard in the southern area of Dobrogea in order to obtain a quantitatively and qualitatively increased yield. A total of 11 phytosanitary treatments were applied to control brown rot, gumspot of stone fruit, scab and powdery mildew. The assessments at 7-10 days after each treatment for Comandor and Farbaly varieties proved a good efficacy ranging from 86.67 to 100%. So that the production of apricots intended for sale was approx 12 tons per hectare.
Keywords: diseases, control, treatments, efficacy
IN VITRO COMPATIBILITY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES WITH ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA
Maria Cristina Lumînare, Daniel Cojanu, Monica Mihaela Dinu, Ana-Cristina Fătu
Abstract. The in vitro effect of three herbicides commonly used in wheat or corn plant protection programs in Romania on mycelial growth of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana (BbTd1) were investigated. The formulations with Isoxaflutole 225 g/L + Thiencarbazone methyl 90 g/L + cyprosulfamide (safener) 150 g/L (Adengo), Nicosulfuron 40g/L (Nicogan) and dimethylamine salt 600g/L (Dicopur) were tested at three different concentrations (field recommendation- FR, half and twice the FR) both on solid and liquid media. On the solid media, the radial growth of the fungus was measured for 11 days. On the liquid media mycelial biomass was weighted after 7 days of incubation on a rotary shaker. Dicopur significantly inhibited the vegetative growth of B. bassiana BbTd1 in both culture media at tested concentrations. In liquid media, mycelial growth was stimulated by Adengo and Nicogan at different concentrations. No significant differences caused by Adengo and Nicogan compared to control of radial growth was detected. The results showed that Adengo and Nicogan could be used simultaneously with this entomopathogen in integrated control programs. Further in vivo studies are necessary to establish if Dicopur formulation can cause damage to field populations of entomopathogenic fungi.
Key words: Beauveria bassiana, compatibility, herbicides, in vitro
SPECIES OF INSECTS HARMFUL TO LEAVES, BUDS, AND FLOWERS IN THE APPLE ORCHARDS OF SOUTHERN ROMANIA
Mădălina Rădulea, Maria Iamandei, Ionuț Cristian Popa, Raluca Gabriela Georgescu, Andrei Chiriloaie-Palade, Cecilia Bolbose
Abstract: The aim of the study was to update knowledge of the complex of harmful species that damage apple tree buds, flowers and leaves in orchards in the southern part of Romania. The pest fauna identified by visual observation and collection of infested plant material in the 2021 study, performed in 3 orchards, was represented by a total of 4 species of beetles: Phyllobius pomaceus, P. oblongus, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tropinota (Epicometis) hirta (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) and 12 species of moths: Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), Stigmella malella (Lepidoptera:Nepticulidae), Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera:Erebidae), Leucoptera malifoliella, Lyonetia clerkella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae), Adoxophyes orana, Archips podanus, A. rosanus, Clepsis consimilana, Pandemis heparana, P. cerasana and Hedia nubiferana (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae). The report reveals the variations among orchards, in terms of species composition, relative abundance of common species and their importance for the region.
Key words: apple pest, defoliators, arthropod pest diversity, apple orchards
THE USE OF BIOPREPARATIONS WITH BACTERIA AND FUNGI TO CONTROL DOWNY MILDEW (Plasmopara vitícola) AND REDUCE CHEMICAL TREATMENTS
Marin Lixandru, Sergiu Fendrihan
Abstract: This paper reviews the possible biological control of grapevine downy mildew Plasmopara viticola. Often, when the climatic conditions are very favorable for the emergence and manifestation of the disease, the chemical treatment has a low efficiency, this phytopathogen producing significant damage, including as a result of the formation of resistant strains. A modern method of combating it is biological control using microorganisms bacteria and fungi which can inhibit through their presence directly or indirectly the growth and multiplication of the fungus, which we present in this paper.
Key words: Vitis vinifera, downy milldew, biological control, Bacillus, Trichoderma, Lysobacter