STUDIES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME ESSENTIAL OILS ON MAIZE CROP DEVELOPMENT
Viorel Fatu, Roxana Dudoiu, Laura Şopterean
Abstract: Maize crop (Zea mays), within most of agricultural areas in Romania, does not meet favorable climatic conditions. The main abiotic problems encountered by maize crop are related to the low soil temperatures during germination and reduced amount of rainfall during the formation and maturation of caryopses.
Key words: Zea mays, essential oil, harvest
PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE ACTION OF SOME BIOLOGICAL SUBSTANCES ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH ON PEACHES CULTIVATED ON SANDY SOILS
Milica Dima, Aurelia Diaconu, Reta Drăghici, Mihaela Croitoru, Viorel Fătu
Abstract: Plant protection bioproducts are biological means based on natural compounds (plant extracts) with complex mode of action on crop plants, some biopreparations have also proved to be stimulators of vegetative growth. Biopreparations application is done through treatments, which are either treatments in vegetation (sprays with different volumes of liquid) or seeds treatments.
Key words: peach, sandy soil, biological substances
CONSERVATION OF WHEAT SEEDS GERMINATION CAPACITY DURING STORAGE
Viorel Fătu, Roxana Dudoiu, Carmen Lupu
Abstract: Grain storage is a key activity in preserving the nutritional, microbiological and physiological properties of seeds. The decisive abiotic factors in the evolution of stored seed quality are temperature and humidity. These factors can be modified from the outside of the cereals warehouse through climatic variations and within through the metabolic activity of seeds and the forms of life that enter in deposit with the cereals.
Key words: wheat, deposit, germinative capacity
EFFICACY OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCT BIOMELCON (BEAUVERIA BRONGNIARTII) DURING THE SECOND YEAR OF APPLICATION IN FOREST NURSERIES OF MOLDOVA
Ana-Cristina Fătu, Mihaela Monica Dinu, Ana-Maria Andrei, Constantin Ciornei
Abstract: In 2016, in some nurseries from Bacău county, very strong infestations with white grubs were reported and significant decreases of larval density were recorded following the two repeated applications of bioinsecticide based on Beauveria brongniartii (BioMelCon). However, in the second year, infestations with Melolontha melolontha were maintained at a medium level and those with other species of white worms, Anomala sp. and Rhyzotrogus aestivus, were high. The treatments were repeated in 2017 by applying in the spring a single dose of 150 kg / ha of BioMelCon by manually spreading and soil incorporation using a disc harrow. After second year of application the initial number of white grubs was reduced until the autumn evaluation in 2017 and greatest losses due to both the effect of the biological product as well as the soil plowing of larvae have been recorded at M. melolontha and R. aestivus.
Key words: Beauveria brongniartii, bioinsecticide, white grubs, nurseries
INSECTS’ SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE ACTIVE SUBSTANCE OF A BIOINSECTICIDE FOR COLORADO BEETLE CONTROL
Dinu Mihaela Monica, Fătu Ana-Cristina, Andrei Ana-Maria
Abstract: Mass rearing of test insects in the laboratory requires standardized techniques and facilities. The mass rearing of Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) under controlled laboratory conditions is expensive and laborious. This paper presents preliminary studies for testing a complex entomopathogenic bioproduct with simultaneous ingestion and contact action on other test insects that can be mass reared outside the growing season of solanaceous crops. The active substance of the complex bioproduct consists in contagious propagules with contact action (Beauveria bassiana) and with ingestion action (Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis and Fusarium oxysporum). Insects belonging to Ord. Lepidoptera (Plodia interpunctella, Galleria mellonella), respectively Ord. Coleoptera (Tenebrio molitor) were characterized in terms of susceptibility to the bioinsecticide (B. bassiana + B. thuringiensis+ F. oxysporum). Test insects exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to the pathogen mixture, recording mortality of 91% (P. interpunctella), 66% (T. molitor) and 33% (G. mellonella). The susceptibility assessment was based on the larval mortality rates, recorded over 48 hours for 10 days.
Key words: Beauveria bassiana, entomopathogenic bioproduct, bioassay
THE PRESENCE OF THE DOG-ROSE FRUIT FLY CARPOMYA SCHINERI (DIPTERA, TEPHRITIDAE) IN BANEASA-BUCHAREST AREA
Andrei Teodoru, Andrei Chiriloaie, Constantina Chireceanu
Abstract: Carpomya schineri (Loew, 1856) is a main pest for hips of dog-rose (Rosa canina L.), which belongs to the Tephritidae family (Diptera). The dog-rose is a shrub from the Rosaceae family, spontaneously encountered in plains, hills and mountains, but also in private cultures. Its fruits have therapeutic properties and are an important source of vitamins, especially vitamin C and antioxidants essential for human health.
Key words: dog-rose hips, Carpomya schineri
PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES IN SOME ORGANIC GREENHOUSES
FROM MUNTENIA REGION
Oana-Alina Boiu-Sicuia, Maria Iamandei, Mihaela-Monica Dinu, Florica Constantinescu
Abstract: Organic greenhouse production has expanded during the past ten years. However, plant pests and diseases are the major impediment in obtaining good quality produce and yield. The purpose of this study was to highlight the phytosanitary problems faced by farmers in the organic vegetable production system from Muntenia region. The list of arthropods fauna comprises 15 species, most of them specific to the studied area and analyzed cultures. Our survey highlights the presence of three invasive species: Tuta absoluta, Nezara viridula and Halyomorpha halys and their potential to become important pests of greenhouses tomatoes. Ten phytopathogenic agents were also present in the studied organic greenhouses. Among these, five were phytopatogenic fungi of Alternaria spp., Cercospora beticola, Passalora fulva, Septoria spp. and Erysiphae spp. and three were bacterial pathogens of Pseudomonas syringae, Ps. lachrymans and Pectobacterium spp. Two viral diseases were also detected based on plant disease symptoms, TSWV and CMV. The spectrum of natural enemies was very well represented.
Key words: organic greenhouse, plant pests and diseases
EFFECTIVENESS OF POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES IN VINEYARDS IN OSTROV, CONSTANTA
Marga Grădila, Daniel Jaloba
Abstract: Because of their perenniality and the long distance between rows, the vineyards are yearly covered by perennial and annual mono and dicotyledonous weeds, which are very difficult to fight against. Since workforce reducing occurred, chemical weed control has become a necessity as the weeds may compete with the vines for water and nutrient contents of the soil. The weeds may also support the development of diseases and pests and reduce the quality and quantity of grapes production. The research was conducted on the vineyard area of Ostrov-Dobrudja hills, on two different locations (the Canlia`s and Lipnita`s villages area) and was aimed at determining the efficacy of gluphosinate-based on herbicides applied in postemergency for weed control.
Key words: vineyards, herbicides, weeds, efficacy
EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS WITH LOW ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD TOWARDS AQUATIC ORGANISMS USED IN POTATO CROP PROTECTION
Roxana Dudoiu, Daria Popa, Sorina Dinu, Cristina Fătu, Carmen Mincea
Abstract: Limiting the use of chemicals due to harmful effects on the environment and natural ecosystems has led to the successful development and application of eco-friendly products with biological active properties. This paper presents studies conducted under laboratory and experimental field conditions to determine the toxicity of some bioproducts based on Bacillus subtilis - RdB2 bacterial biomass and Beauveria bassiana fungal biomass towards fish, Cyprinus carpio and algae, Selenastrum capricornutum.
Key words: biological products, Cyprinus carpio, Selenastrum capricornutum, environmental risk
PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS WITH REDUCED IMPACT FOR AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT USED IN POTATO CROP
Daria Popa, Roxana Dudoiu, Carmen Mincea
Abstract: Water protection is a priority on the list of public concerns about the environment and is recognized as one of the fundamental elements necessary for the existence of life on the planet. Proper use of pesticides is continuously supported in a sustainable and productive agriculture. In order to determine the plant protection products impact on aquatic organisms, the carp (Cyprinus carpio), a species found on the list of species recommended by European legislation and a species of unicellular green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), were used as a biological material.
Key words: plant protection products, aquatic environment, Cyprinus carpio, Selenastrum capricornutum
THE ROLE OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES PRODUCED BY ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN PATHOGENESIS OF WOOD INSECTS – MINIREVIEW
Petrişor Cristina, Stoian Gheorghe
Abstract: Entomopathogenic fungi are a major component of integrated pest management techniques as biological control agents against insect pests and other arthropods in horticulture, forestry and agriculture. Fungal virulence of different entomopathogenic fungi like Beauveria bassiana, B. brongniartii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Lecanicilium lecanii has been mostly associated with cuticle-degrading enzymes that can be regulated depending on nutrient conditions.
Key words: chitinases, proteases, lipases, cuticle