A STUDY ON TOTAL AFLATOXINS IN ROMANIAN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) SAMPLES
Irina Smeu, Elena Mirela Cucu, Alina Alexandra Dobre, Hellene Casian
Abstract: Mycotoxin contamination represents a clear public health concern. In this context, a maize survey was conducted in Romania, to monitor the occurrence of total aflatoxins in maize samples collected during the 2019 growing season from fields located in all counties. A total of 95 maize samples were collected along with information regarding the specific location of fields, the applied agronomic practices and cropping systems.
ELISA method was used for the quantification of AFs. The results showed 88 contaminated samples. Only one sample registered aflatoxin levels higher than the limit of 10.00 μg/kg, settled by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 for maize to be subjected to soring or other physical treatment before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. The highest AFs level was 77.59 μg/kg, noted by a maize sample from Argeș County (the South-Muntenia development region, macro region 3). When referring to the analysed samples, the total aflatoxin contamination was independent of the type of hybrid, but strongly influenced by the pedo-climatic differences between counties. The southern counties proved to represent critical risk areas for aflatoxin contamination when referring to maize crops. These results highlight the importance of an effective and sustainable mycotoxin management along the food and feed chain, as well as the need of mapping the mycotoxin risk areas.
Keywords: aflatoxins, maize, Romania
SOYBEAN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE
Felicia Mureșanu, Dana Malschi, Loredana Suciu, Felicia Chețan, Camelia Urdă, Laura Șopterean, Ana-Maria Vălean, Vasile Oltean, Gabriel Barșon, Florin Russu
Abstract: In order to protect agroecosystems and to optimize soybean crop yield from the Transylvanian Plain, the adoption of complex methods of sustainable management with minimal impact on the environment has now become a challenge. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research-Development Station Turda in 2018, to provide the best methods for the development of an Integrated Management System (IMS) for phytosanitary soybean crop risks. The field factorial experiment was based on a subdivided parcel design with two replications. Experimental models for soybean crop protection have been developed. Field research was carried out for analyzing the technological (agricultural practices), biological (diseases, insects, pests) and environmental (climate change, methods of improving soil fertility with phytosanitary risk by applying environmentally friendly products) factors affecting soybean crop yield and quality. An entomological sampling strategy (pheromone traps, plant surveys) was used for evaluating the IMS environmental risk and methods for increasing plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors were also studied. The obtained data was correlated with the production values for the 3 experimental factors: the tillage system, fertilization and treatments. The following pests were recorded, soil pests Coleoptera, Agriotes larvae, Opatrum, dipterans Delia platura and D. florilega, vectors of viruses and phytoplasmoses, cicadas, aphids, trips and the common red spider Tetranychus urticae, defoliating omissions Vanessa cardui, owls Autographa gamma, Mamestra suasa, M. oleracea, Agrotis segetum) etc. In the climatic conditions of 2018, most frequent pathogens were downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica and bacterial blight Pseudomonas glycinae.
Keywords: soybean, climate change, integrated management, pests
CANOPY REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS USED TO ESTIMATE LATE BLIGHT (PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS) INFLUENCE ON POTATO YIELD
Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate potato late blight (Phytophtora infestans) influence on leaf chlorophyll level using datasets extracted from multispectral data captured at the canopy level. Field experiments were carried out to the National Institute of Research and Development for Potato and Sugar Beet Brasov, Romania in 2014-2016 period. It was used a complete randomized block design with four replicates, two planting distances between plants on row (25 and 30cm) and different fungicides, control technologies. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was introduced to achieve a spectral vegetation index that can separate the vegetation from the uncovered ground. It is defined as the ratio between the infrared bands-red differences and sum them. Due to the different growth conditions, the effects of resulting variants from combinations of factors -varieties-planting density-late blight control technology-on the tubers yield have manifested with different intensity. In two of three years, the average NDVI value of plants grown at a density of 53.3 thousands hill/ha was significantly lower than the values determined at a density of 44.4 thousands hill/ha (NDVI 0.817 compared to 0.859 in 2014 and 0.905 compared to 0.895 in 2015). The correlation between the average values of NDVI yields and tubers were positive.
Keywords: potato, late blight, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
IMPROVEMENT OF FROST RESISTANCE OF GRAPEVINE
Marian Lixandru, Sergiu Fendrihan
Abstract: The experiments took place in the village Hotarele (Giurgiu County) comprising a vineyard area of 1.5 ha, with the Muscat Ottonel variety. From batches treated with copper sulphate with a concentration of 1.5% before the fall of the leaves and 3% after the fall of the leaves, samples were taken and their evolution was constantly monitored before and after the cold season. The buds and wood viability at negative temperatures of -15, -18, -21°C and the content in reserve substances were analyzed. It was found that the vines treated with copper sulfate have a higher viability, therefore a better resistance to frost as well as biochemical characteristics - higher content of reserve substances, which support this resistance.
Keywords: frost resistance, copper sulfate, vines viability, reserve substance content
NEW DATA ON ENTOMOFAUNA HARMFUL TO RAPESEED CROPS AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MEASURES TO PREVENT AND REDUCE ATTACKS
Elena Trotuș, Carmen Mincea, Paula-Lucelia Pintilie, Georgiana-Roxana Amarghioalei
Abstract: Rapeseed, the first crop established in autumn, is a species that attracts a large number of pests, from emergence to the siliquae formation and seed. Decreased production due to the attack of harmful insects can vary between 30-50%, in certain years, they can completely compromise crops. This paper presents data on the entomofauna harmful to rapeseed crops and the influence of measures to prevent and combat attacks, under specific conditions in the Central area of Moldova. The results obtained between 2017 and 2020 showed that the harmful entomofauna of rapeseed was composed of 23 species of insects, classified in five systematic orders: Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and Homoptera. According to the number of species and the number of specimens collected, the order Coleoptera had the maximum share of 73.9% and respectively 88.9%. Within the order Coleoptera, the most abundant species were Phyllotreta atra (41.4%), Meligethes aeneus (27.8%), Ceuthorynchus assimilis (9.6%) and Phyllotreta nemorum (7.3%). Out of the total pest entomofauna, it was found that 30% affect rapeseed crops in the period between seed germination-plant emergence-leaf rosette formation, 9.1% in budding phase, 38% in flowering and 1.8% up to 2.8% in the phenophases of siliquae formation and seed. To prevent the attacks of soil pests (P. atra, P. nemorum, Psylliodes sp., Athalia rosae) was achieved by chemical treatment of the seed with Imidacloprid, Clothianidin and Thiamethoxam. The product Lumiposa 625FS-11.4 l/t seed was experimented with good results in seed treatment. To reduce the attacks of the pests during the flowering period (M. aeneus, A. rosae, Epicometis hirta, Ceuthorynchus assimilis) three treatments were applied on vegetation as follows: Decis Mega-0.075l/ha; Biscaya-0.3 l/ha; Mavrik-0.2 l/ha. This work was carried out within ADER 4.1.5 and 2.2.1 projects.
Keywords: rapeseed, pest entomofauna, Romania
EVALUATING SUSPICIONS OF INTOXICATION IN BEES IN 2018-2020
Vasilică Savu, Agripina Şapcaliu, Tache Bogdan, Roxana Zaharia, Viorica Lagunovschi-Luchian, Luiza Bădic, Ion Rădoi
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to evaluate suspicions of intoxication in bees in 2018-2020. Bee health was monitored and samples were collected (live bees, dead bees, honey, pollen, hive fragments) from bee colonies in apiaries located in various geographical areas of Romania. Corroborating the anamnetic data, morphoclinical examinations and laboratory tests, other causes of disease were excluded and the diagnosis was suspicion of intoxication. During this period, 317 apiaries were monitored out of which 32 apiaries were identified to display suspicion of intoxication, out of which 4 apiaries in 2018, 18 apiaries in 2019 and 10 apiaries in 2020. The suspicion of intoxication diagnosis included 4079 bee colonies, out of which 1896 colonies were diagnosed in 2018, 1582 in 2019 and 601 in 2020. The bee colonies under suspicion of intoxication were evaluated and categorized as follows: toxic food intoxication 49.5% (2018), 34.07% (2019) and 14.31% (2020); chemical substance intoxication 40% (2018), 59.6% (2019), 35.10% (2020) and medicine intoxication 10.5% (2018), 6.33 % (2019) and 50.59 % (2020).
Keywords: bees, Apis mellifera carpathica, suspicion of intoxication
ENDOZOOCHORY - THE SOURCE OF WEDDING OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS
Ciontu Valentin, Daniel Jalobă, Mihaela Şerban, Victor Petcu, Marga Grădilă
Abstract: One of the most important sources of weed infestation in agricultural crops is related to manure applied as biological fertilizer, when livestock growers don`t process it and don`t store it in order to be weeds - free. In manure there are lot of weed seeds from animal fodder, livestock bedding and also from animal excrements. On the pasture, when grazing fresh food, animals eat also the inflorescences with weed seeds. Ones of these seeds could pass through the digestive tract of animals while keeping their ability to germinate. The aim of this study was to record the weed species that can cross over the digestive tract without losing their germination, to note which weed species are more adapted to do this, which animal species are able to perform the endozoochory process and under what environmental conditions. Trials were conducted under laboratory conditions. The content of excrements taken from four animals species (cattle, goats, sheep, horses), from four distinct South – East areas in period 2019-2020, were mixed with sterilized soil and put to germinate under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Following the assessments, weed seeds were found to be able to cross over the digestive tract of animals maintaining their germination. The highest frequency was in cattle and the lowest was in horses. There was at Pasărea where the largest number of weeds was found and animals grazed on untillaged land (hences, fallow lands). The dominant weed species were Setaria sp., Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus retroflexus and Polygonum aviculare.
Keywords: endozoochory, weed seeds, manure, germination.
A NEW RECORD OF NEODRYINUS TYPHLOCYBAE IN ROMANIA - short communication
Constantina Chireceanu1, Daniela Dobromir
Abstract: The first record of the useful parasitoid wasp Neodryinus typhlocybae in the North-Western part of Romania (Ghioroc, Arad County, Crisana Province) is reported in this paper. The cocoons of this species were collected in September 2020 from five plant species Rubus fruticosus, Cornus sanguine, Malus pumila, Syringa vulgaris and Laburnum anagyroides attacked by Metcapfa pruinosa. This result represents the second report for Romania, the first being in Bucharest in the south part of the country in 2019.
Keywords: Neodryinus typhlocybae, Metcalfa pruinosa, Arad, Romania
RESEARCH ON EARTHWORMS COMMUNITY IN AGRICULTURAL CROPS IN THE MOLDOVA PLATEAU
Angela Cristina Amuza, Roxana Zaharia, Ionuț Leveanu, Alin Georgian Gheorghe
Abstract: Over the last 40 years, over-cultivation of the soil has led to the loss of about 30% of arable land worldwide destroying the micro- and macro-fauna that provides its life. Earthworms play an important role in soil formation contributing to the composition and functioning of its ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of earthworm species in maize, rapeseed, soybean and barley crops in the Moldova Plateau (North-Eastern Romania) in 2020. The sampling consisted of 15 pits of 25x25x40 cm per crop. Five earthworm species belonging to three genera Aporrectodea, Eisenia and Dendrodrilus were identified. Most earthworms (adults and juveniles) were collected from maize crop (39.63%). In rapeseed crop were collected 30.18% of earthworms and in barley and soybean each 15.09% of earthworms. The most abundant species was Aporrectodea caliginosa nocturna with 37.71% of the total adult earthworms. This study reports the first data on earthworm fauna for the Moldova Region in North-Eastern Romania.
Key words: earthworms, Lumbricidae, diversity of populations, agriculture crops.
SOIL PROTECTION STUDY THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF COMPLEX METHODS FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF THE SOYBEAN AGROSYSTEM
Felicia Cheţan, Loredana Suciu, Cornel Cheţan, Adina Tărău, Ioana Crişan, Felicia Mureşanu
Abstract: The degradation of natural soil fertility is caused by practicing the classic tillage system (ploughing with the furrow return) and using high doses of chemical fertilizers. It is necessary to adopt soil tillage techniques that aim to preserve and improve soil fertility without decrease production. In Romania, soybean crop, could be an economic boost for the agriculture sector because it reduces the costs required for the procurement of vegetable protein needed for the livestock and food sector, soybeans being a plant that fixes nitrogen from various sources (precipitation, activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteria, humus mineralization and residual nitrogen). From the research conducted between 2018-2020 at ARDS Turda, regarding the soybean root nodules cultivated in four tillage systems (CS - plough, MC - chisel, MD - disk and NT- direct sowing) with the technology specific to each system, the results indicate that in a conservative system the soybeans yield correlates positively with the number and weight of nodules formed. Organo-mineral fertilization (green fertilizer - autumn rape + gulle manure + N40P40) contributes significantly positively to the number and the weight of nodules and increases the yield. As an alternative to the CS, soybean can be cultivated in a minimum tillage system (MC), the yield difference compared to the classical system (plough) being insignificant, just 38 kg. The pedo-climatic conditions of the experimental area it is favourable for this crop and for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, without requiring high doses of mineral fertilizers.
Key words: soybean, tillage system, nodules, yield
PROTECTION OF THE SOYBEAN CROP AGROECOSYSTEM THROUGH INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
Adina Daniela Tărău, Camelia Urdă, Felicia Mureșanu, Felicia Chețan,Vasile Oltean, Adrian Negrea, Loredana Suciu
Abstract:Soybean is an important economical crop used for human consumption, animal feed and industrial raw material. Also, soybean is succesfully used in crop roatations with the main cereal crops because it’s biological nitrogen-fixing capabilities. A great diversity of pests and diseases including nematodes, insects and phytopathogenic fungi are known to affect soybean crop. From plant emergence to grain maturity, pests Tetranychus urticae and Etiella zinckenella, pseudofungi Peronospora manshurica and fungi Fusarium sp. and Botrytis cinerea can cause economic damage. In this study was evaluated the influence of tillage systems, different types of fertilizers and pesticide treatments on the most economical important diseases and pests of soybean crop in a field experiment at Agricultural Research and Development Station (ARDS Turda) in the climatic conditions of 2020. Teo TD, an early maturing soybean variety created at ARDS Turda, was used for the experiment. Based on the assessments made, soil tillage system, fertilization and control of pests and diseases have differently influenced the downy mildew and T. urticae attack. To reduce the attack of pathogens in soybean crop, the best technological option is plowing, balanced fertilization and application of fungicides, either without or in combination with an insecticide. The T. urticae populations developed on mineral, organic and green fertilized plants. Integrated control methods must combine agro-technical measures with the application of chemical treatments in accordance with the warning of the appearance of the first adults.
Keywords: soybean, tillage system, insect pests, Peronospora manshurica
PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON BEHAVIOR OF APRICOT, PEACH AND PLUM TO MONILINIA SPP. IN EXPERIMENTAL FIELD OF USAMV BUCHAREST
Alin Gheorghe, Ion Leveanu, Angela Amuza
Abstract: The stone fruits occupy an important place in the human diet due to their complex chemical composition such as sugars, free organic acids, pectic substances and vitamins. The main damage of economic importance to the stone fruit species is caused by the monilia disease caused by the fungus Monilia laxa (Aderhold et Ruhland). The disease can affect several host tissues these include blossom blight, shoot blight, fruit blight and brown fruit rot. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the attack produced by the pathogen on peach, apricot and plum from the first decade of May until the second decade of August in Experimental Field of Horticulture Faculty, USAMV Bucharest in 2019. Results showed that plums had the highest attack rate (14%) and the lowest was in apricots (0.8%). It should be noted that monilia disease is a major threat for stone fruit trees because of its aggressive manifestation on the fruit, especially in plums and peaches.
Key words: Monilinia laxa, apricot, peach, plum trees
RESEARCH ON THE FLIGHT DYNAMICS OF OSTRINIA NUBILALIS IN MAIZE CROPS UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL PART OF MOLDOVA, ROMANIA
Paula - Lucelia Ursache, Mihai Talmaciu, Elena Trotuș, Simona - Florina Isticioaia, Georgiana - Roxana Amarghioalei
Abstract: Maize is one of the most cultivated plants species in Europe. Throughout Romania, maize was present on 2.68 million hectares in 2019. As such, special care should be taken to protect these crops against harmful organisms and especially insects. In the current context of the climate changes that become more visible from one year to another on agricultural crops and also on the pest attack intensity, it is necessary to know the evolution of the pest European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. in maize crops. For this reason, the pest was monitored under conditions of the central part of Moldavia, Romania, in order to evaluate the adult’s appearance and the flight pattern. Number of adults of O. nubilalis collected during the study period 2018-2020 totalled 1652 specimens, of which 488 specimens were registered in 2018, 729 specimens in 2019, and 437 specimens in 2020. The flight of adults began at the end of May in 2018, respectively at the beginning of June in 2019 and 2020 and continued without interruption until the end of September each year. The flight curves of O. nubilalis were monitored in the study period, the maximum peaks were recorded at different times, influenced by temperature conditions and precipitation recorded in April - August. The flight of moths has undergone changes, it was interrupted by rainfall in June and July, the flight increased in intensity during August, in mid or the end of the month, when second peaks were recorded.
Key words: maize pest, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight pattern.
OPTIMISATION OF LABORATORY PROTOCOLS FOR THE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF TRIALEURODES VAPORARIORUM WESTWOOD, 1856 (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) GONADS – Part 1
Daniel Kazimir Kurzeluk
Abstract: Many techniques for the histological study of the invertebrate gonads topography are described. For arthropods, a major drawback is the presence of the exoskeleton, which is a hardly permeable structure to the aqueous reagents with mechanical resistance also. Therefore, use of specific reagents and techniques, adapted for the study of their internal structures is a must. Several methods have been tested in this study like aqueous topographical fixation solutions based on picric acid (Bouin), mercury (II) chloride („Susa” Heidenhain) as well as alcoholic ones, picric acid (Duboscq-Brasil), mercury (II) chloride (Apathy) or acetic acid (Carnoy II) based. For the i) dehydration methods using absolute ethanol or 2-propanol, and ii) embedding ones the following methods were tested: paraffin with benzene, tert-butanol or pyridine as intermediary solvent (Gabe), paraffin-celloidin double inclusion with diethyl ether: ethanol (1:1) as solvent (Pfuhl). After embedding and casting the paraffin blocks, these were cut at 5-10μ, the section ribbons were spread on distilled water and glued on slides with glycerol-albumine Mayer. For the double-embedded material, the sections were glued with Ruyter’s solution, with or without application of collodion. Heidenhain’s „Azan”, Mann-Dominici, Van Gieson and Gabe staining methods were used. For permanent slides, natural Canada balsam or artificial one “Caedax” were dissolved in xylene (mixture of isomers). Several procedures were tested for fixing solution, intermediary solvent, dehydrating, embedding and staining. The aim of this study was to optimise an efficient method in terms of results and reproducibility. Here, one of the successful methods is detailed (Heidenhain’s „Susa” fixation, ethanol dehydrating, paraffin embedding and Heidenhain’s „Azan” staining), to be followed by a series of optimized methods in future articles. The results obtained are reproducible, allowing the investigation methods of the structural modification of the white fly gonads induced by the chemical or biological control methods standardization.
Keywords: Trialeurodes vaporariorum, gonads, histology
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON ENTOMOPATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS WITH POTENTIAL AS BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS - minireview
Ana-Cristina Fătu, Cristina-Maria Lumînare, Daniel Cojanu, Mihaela-Monica Dinu
Abstract: The entomopathogenic fungi play an important role in suppressing the natural population of insect pests. A number of these microorganisms are developed and commercialized as mycoinsecticides for controlling arthropod pests in agriculture and forestry. A wide range of factors and the interactions between them can affect the persistence and survival of entomopathogenic microorganisms; understanding of these factors is indispensable for the successful use of microbiological control agents, in conditions of economic and ecological efficiency. The influence of some of these factors on fungal development and fate in soil and on plants has been studied by a number of authors for several entomopathogenic hyphomycetes used in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to summarize a few aspects about the abiotic and biotic factors that influence the biological activity of entomopathogenic microorganisms. The following environmental factors are presented: light, temperature and humidity, soil, microorganisms, wind and precipitation.
Key words: environmental factors, persistence, entomopathogenic
EXPERIMENTAL DATA ON CHEMICAL CONTROL OF MAIN PATHOGENS AND PESTS IN AN APPLE ORCHARD IN NORTH-EASTERN ROMANIA IN 2019
Cristina Ionela Turcu, Agurița Aftudor Manolache, Ionel Perju, Simona Mihaela Chelaru, Margareta Corneanu
Abstract: The researches were carried out in 2019 in an apple plantation with Jonathan, Golden Delicious, Starkrimson varieties grafted on MM106 in the fields of the Fălticeni Development Centre belonging to the Development Research Station for Fruit Growing Iași (North Eastern Romania). The climatic conditions in 2019 were favorable for the development of pathogens Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha and Monilinia fructigena. In the conditions of fungicide treatments, the varieties sensitive to apple scab on fruits were Starkrimson and Golden Delicious with an attack degree between 4.5 and 10.5%. Pest species Cydia pomonella and Adoxophyes reticulana showed a frequency of attack of 45% and 15%, respectively in the case of untreated control. The results of the studies highlight the importance of applying phytosanitary treatments correlated with climatic conditions and resistance of varieties to the attack of diseases and pests.
Key words: apple chemical protection, pathogens, insect pests, Fălticeni, Romania