A STUDY ON TOTAL AFLATOXINS IN ROMANIAN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) SAMPLES
Irina Smeu, Elena Mirela Cucu, Alina Alexandra Dobre, Hellene Casian
Abstract: Mycotoxin contamination represents a clear public health concern. In this context, a maize survey was conducted in Romania, to monitor the occurrence of total aflatoxins in maize samples collected during the 2019 growing season from fields located in all counties. A total of 95 maize samples were collected along with information regarding the specific location of fields, the applied agronomic practices and cropping systems.
ELISA method was used for the quantification of AFs. The results showed 88 contaminated samples. Only one sample registered aflatoxin levels higher than the limit of 10.00 μg/kg, settled by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 for maize to be subjected to soring or other physical treatment before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. The highest AFs level was 77.59 μg/kg, noted by a maize sample from Argeș County (the South-Muntenia development region, macro region 3). When referring to the analysed samples, the total aflatoxin contamination was independent of the type of hybrid, but strongly influenced by the pedo-climatic differences between counties. The southern counties proved to represent critical risk areas for aflatoxin contamination when referring to maize crops. These results highlight the importance of an effective and sustainable mycotoxin management along the food and feed chain, as well as the need of mapping the mycotoxin risk areas.
Keywords: aflatoxins, maize, Romania
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SOYBEAN  INTEGRATED  PEST  MANAGEMENT  FOR  PROMOTING  SUSTAINABLE  AGRICULTURE  UNDER  CLIMATE CHANGE

Felicia Mureșanu, Dana Malschi, Loredana Suciu, Felicia Chețan, Camelia Urdă, Laura Șopterean, Ana-Maria Vălean, Vasile Oltean, Gabriel Barșon, Florin Russu

Abstract: In order to protect agroecosystems and to optimize soybean crop yield from the Transylvanian Plain, the adoption of complex methods of sustainable management with minimal impact on the environment has now become a challenge. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research-Development Station Turda in 2018, to provide the best methods for the development of an Integrated Management System (IMS) for phytosanitary soybean crop risks. The field factorial experiment was based on a subdivided parcel design with two replications. Experimental models for soybean crop protection have been developed. Field research was carried out for analyzing the technological (agricultural practices), biological (diseases, insects, pests) and environmental (climate change, methods of improving soil fertility with phytosanitary risk by applying environmentally friendly products) factors affecting soybean crop yield and quality. An entomological sampling strategy (pheromone traps, plant surveys) was used for evaluating the IMS environmental risk and methods for increasing plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors were also studied. The obtained data was correlated with the production values for the 3 experimental factors: the tillage system, fertilization and treatments. The following pests were recorded, soil pests Coleoptera, Agriotes larvae, Opatrum, dipterans Delia platura and D. florilega, vectors of viruses and phytoplasmoses, cicadas, aphids, trips and the common red spider Tetranychus urticae, defoliating omissions Vanessa cardui, owls Autographa gamma, Mamestra suasa, M. oleracea, Agrotis segetum) etc. In the climatic conditions of 2018, most frequent pathogens were downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica and bacterial blight Pseudomonas glycinae.

Keywords: soybean, climate change, integrated management, pests
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CANOPY REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS USED TO ESTIMATE LATE BLIGHT (PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS) INFLUENCE ON POTATO YIELD

Manuela Hermeziu

Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate potato late blight (Phytophtora infestans) influence on leaf chlorophyll level using datasets extracted from multispectral data captured at the canopy level. Field experiments were carried out to the National Institute of Research and Development for Potato and Sugar Beet Brasov, Romania in 2014-2016 period. It was used a complete randomized block design with four replicates, two planting distances between plants on row (25 and 30cm) and different fungicides, control technologies. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was introduced to achieve a spectral vegetation index that can separate the vegetation from the uncovered ground. It is defined as the ratio between the infrared bands-red differences and sum them. Due to the different growth conditions, the effects of resulting variants from combinations of factors -varieties-planting density-late blight control technology-on the tubers yield have manifested with different intensity. In two of three years, the average NDVI value of plants grown at a density of 53.3 thousands hill/ha was significantly lower than the values determined at a density of 44.4 thousands hill/ha (NDVI 0.817 compared to 0.859 in 2014 and 0.905 compared to 0.895 in 2015). The correlation between the average values of NDVI yields and tubers were positive.

Keywords: potato, late blight, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
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IMPROVEMENT OF FROST RESISTANCE OF GRAPEVINE

Marian Lixandru, Sergiu Fendrihan

Abstract: The experiments took place in the village Hotarele (Giurgiu County) comprising a vineyard area of 1.5 ha, with the Muscat Ottonel variety. From batches treated with copper sulphate with a concentration of 1.5% before the fall of the leaves and 3% after the fall of the leaves, samples were taken and their evolution was constantly monitored before and after the cold season. The buds and wood viability at negative temperatures of -15, -18, -21°C and the content in reserve substances were analyzed. It was found that the vines treated with copper sulfate have a higher viability, therefore a better resistance to frost as well as biochemical characteristics - higher content of reserve substances, which support this resistance.

Keywords: frost resistance, copper sulfate, vines viability, reserve substance content
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NEW DATA ON ENTOMOFAUNA HARMFUL TO RAPESEED CROPS AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MEASURES TO PREVENT AND REDUCE ATTACKS

Elena Trotuș, Carmen Mincea, Paula-Lucelia Pintilie, Georgiana-Roxana Amarghioalei

Abstract: Rapeseed, the first crop established in autumn, is a species that attracts a large number of pests, from emergence to the siliquae formation and seed. Decreased production due to the attack of harmful insects can vary between 30-50%, in certain years, they can completely compromise crops. This paper presents data on the entomofauna harmful to rapeseed crops and the influence of measures to prevent and combat attacks, under specific conditions in the Central area of Moldova. The results obtained between 2017 and 2020 showed that the harmful entomofauna of rapeseed was composed of 23 species of insects, classified in five systematic orders: Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and Homoptera. According to the number of species and the number of specimens collected, the order Coleoptera had the maximum share of 73.9% and respectively 88.9%. Within the order Coleoptera, the most abundant species were Phyllotreta atra (41.4%), Meligethes aeneus (27.8%), Ceuthorynchus assimilis (9.6%) and Phyllotreta nemorum (7.3%). Out of the total pest entomofauna, it was found that 30% affect rapeseed crops in the period between seed germination-plant emergence-leaf rosette formation, 9.1% in budding phase, 38% in flowering and 1.8% up to 2.8% in the phenophases of siliquae formation and seed. To prevent the attacks of soil pests (P. atra, P. nemorum, Psylliodes sp., Athalia rosae) was achieved by chemical treatment of the seed with Imidacloprid, Clothianidin and Thiamethoxam. The product Lumiposa 625FS-11.4 l/t seed was experimented with good results in seed treatment. To reduce the attacks of the pests during the flowering period (M. aeneus, A. rosae, Epicometis hirta, Ceuthorynchus assimilis) three treatments were applied on vegetation as follows: Decis Mega-0.075l/ha; Biscaya-0.3 l/ha; Mavrik-0.2 l/ha. This work was carried out within ADER 4.1.5 and 2.2.1 projects.

Keywords: rapeseed, pest entomofauna, Romania
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EVALUATING SUSPICIONS OF INTOXICATION IN BEES IN 2018-2020

Vasilică Savu, Agripina Şapcaliu, Tache Bogdan, Roxana Zaharia, Viorica Lagunovschi-Luchian, Luiza Bădic, Ion Rădoi

Abstract: The purpose of this work was to evaluate suspicions of intoxication in bees in 2018-2020. Bee health was monitored and samples were collected (live bees, dead bees, honey, pollen, hive fragments) from bee colonies in apiaries located in various geographical areas of Romania. Corroborating the anamnetic data, morphoclinical examinations and laboratory tests, other causes of disease were excluded and the diagnosis was suspicion of intoxication. During this period, 317 apiaries were monitored out of which 32 apiaries were identified to display suspicion of intoxication, out of which 4 apiaries in 2018, 18 apiaries in 2019 and 10 apiaries in 2020. The suspicion of intoxication diagnosis included 4079 bee colonies, out of which 1896 colonies were diagnosed in 2018, 1582 in 2019 and 601 in 2020. The bee colonies under suspicion of intoxication were evaluated and categorized as follows: toxic food intoxication 49.5% (2018), 34.07% (2019) and 14.31% (2020); chemical substance intoxication 40% (2018), 59.6% (2019), 35.10% (2020) and medicine intoxication 10.5% (2018), 6.33 % (2019) and 50.59 % (2020).

Keywords: bees, Apis mellifera carpathica, suspicion of intoxication
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ENDOZOOCHORY - THE SOURCE OF WEDDING OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS

Ciontu Valentin, Daniel Jalobă, Mihaela Şerban, Victor Petcu, Marga Grădilă

Abstract: One of the most important sources of weed infestation in agricultural crops is related to manure applied as biological fertilizer, when livestock growers don`t process it and don`t store it in order to be weeds - free. In manure there are lot of weed seeds from animal fodder, livestock bedding and also from animal excrements. On the pasture, when grazing fresh food, animals eat also the inflorescences with weed seeds. Ones of these seeds could pass through the digestive tract of animals while keeping their ability to germinate. The aim of this study was to record the weed species that can cross over the digestive tract without losing their germination, to note which weed species are more adapted to do this, which animal species are able to perform the endozoochory process and under what environmental conditions. Trials were conducted under laboratory conditions. The content of excrements taken from four animals species (cattle, goats, sheep, horses), from four distinct South – East areas in period 2019-2020, were mixed with sterilized soil and put to germinate under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Following the assessments, weed seeds were found to be able to cross over the digestive tract of animals maintaining their germination. The highest frequency was in cattle and the lowest was in horses. There was at Pasărea where the largest number of weeds was found and animals grazed on untillaged land (hences, fallow lands). The dominant weed species were Setaria sp., Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus retroflexus and Polygonum aviculare.

Keywords: endozoochory, weed seeds, manure, germination.
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