A STUDY ON TOTAL AFLATOXINS IN ROMANIAN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) SAMPLES
Irina Smeu, Elena Mirela Cucu, Alina Alexandra Dobre, Hellene Casian
Abstract: Mycotoxin contamination represents a clear public health concern. In this context, a maize survey was conducted in Romania, to monitor the occurrence of total aflatoxins in maize samples collected during the 2019 growing season from fields located in all counties. A total of 95 maize samples were collected along with information regarding the specific location of fields, the applied agronomic practices and cropping systems.
ELISA method was used for the quantification of AFs. The results showed 88 contaminated samples. Only one sample registered aflatoxin levels higher than the limit of 10.00 μg/kg, settled by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 for maize to be subjected to soring or other physical treatment before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. The highest AFs level was 77.59 μg/kg, noted by a maize sample from Argeș County (the South-Muntenia development region, macro region 3). When referring to the analysed samples, the total aflatoxin contamination was independent of the type of hybrid, but strongly influenced by the pedo-climatic differences between counties. The southern counties proved to represent critical risk areas for aflatoxin contamination when referring to maize crops. These results highlight the importance of an effective and sustainable mycotoxin management along the food and feed chain, as well as the need of mapping the mycotoxin risk areas.
Keywords: aflatoxins, maize, Romania
SOYBEAN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE
Felicia Mureșanu, Dana Malschi, Loredana Suciu, Felicia Chețan, Camelia Urdă, Laura Șopterean, Ana-Maria Vălean, Vasile Oltean, Gabriel Barșon, Florin Russu
Abstract: In order to protect agroecosystems and to optimize soybean crop yield from the Transylvanian Plain, the adoption of complex methods of sustainable management with minimal impact on the environment has now become a challenge. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research-Development Station Turda in 2018, to provide the best methods for the development of an Integrated Management System (IMS) for phytosanitary soybean crop risks. The field factorial experiment was based on a subdivided parcel design with two replications. Experimental models for soybean crop protection have been developed. Field research was carried out for analyzing the technological (agricultural practices), biological (diseases, insects, pests) and environmental (climate change, methods of improving soil fertility with phytosanitary risk by applying environmentally friendly products) factors affecting soybean crop yield and quality. An entomological sampling strategy (pheromone traps, plant surveys) was used for evaluating the IMS environmental risk and methods for increasing plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors were also studied. The obtained data was correlated with the production values for the 3 experimental factors: the tillage system, fertilization and treatments. The following pests were recorded, soil pests Coleoptera, Agriotes larvae, Opatrum, dipterans Delia platura and D. florilega, vectors of viruses and phytoplasmoses, cicadas, aphids, trips and the common red spider Tetranychus urticae, defoliating omissions Vanessa cardui, owls Autographa gamma, Mamestra suasa, M. oleracea, Agrotis segetum) etc. In the climatic conditions of 2018, most frequent pathogens were downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica and bacterial blight Pseudomonas glycinae.
Keywords: soybean, climate change, integrated management, pests