IDENTIFICATION OF CROWN GALL ASSOCIATED BACTERIA IN CHERRY TREES (Prunus avium L.)
Lavinia Diana Nicoleta Barbu, Sorina Dinu, Oana-Alina Boiu-Sicuia
Abstract: Crown gall of cherry trees (Prunus avium L.) is mainly caused by the pathogenic bacteria Rhizobium radiobacter carrying the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids. The causal agent has a controversial taxonomy suffering different nomenclature changes based on the biochemical and genetic discoveries over the time. At first, this pathogenic bacterium was known as Agrobacterium biovar 1 or Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and currently as Rhizobium radiobacter carrying the Ti plasmid. The aim of this study was to identify the causal agent responsible for the crown gall symptoms of young cherry trees. Analyzed plants were provided from young orchards from Călărași County, between 2015 and 2019. The pathogen was foreseen based on its characteristic disease symptoms. However, pathogen identification was sustained by several microbiologic and biochemical tests and confirmed through Biolog GEN III technique. The pathogenicity test has revealed the isolated strains’ virulence. Some other bacterial species were also associated with tumors.
Keywords: crown gall, cherry trees
INFLUENCE OF THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS IN ASSOCIATION WITH DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES ON THE LATE BLIGHT (PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS) ATTACK IN POTATO
Abstract: Challenges related to adaptability to the new climatic conditions and to the efficiency of the use of inputs by different potato varieties are permanent. The experience carried out in 2017 aimed to determine the effect of some organic fertilizers on potato plants, by reducing the intensity of late blight attack and to observe the influence on yields level. The classical cultivation technology was used, including a normal fertilization regime (800 kg NPK / ha), over which foliar treatments were applied simultaneously with those for potato late blight control (Phytophthtora infestans). Treatments were applied to the potato variety Brasovia, created to NIRDPSB Brasov. The experience included 3 variants, a control one (untreated) to which no fertilizers were applied, a variant to which fertilizers and recommended doses of fungicides were applied and a variant with fertilizers and only 50% of the recommended fungicides doses. The results obtained with foliar treatments combined with fungicides applied for late blight control determined yield increase, 3.4 t / ha, compared to the untreated. The yield increase as a result of foliar fertilization may be due to the increase in tubers weight and the number of tubers/plant. The data obtained will be supplemented with the results of the following years so that farmers reach complex technological solutions that will contribute to the increase of the economic efficiency of the potato crop.
Keywords: potato, late blight, foliar fertilizer, yield
RESEARCH REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE ON PATHOGENS ATTACK IN SOYBEAN CULTURES
Loredana Suciu, Felicia Cheţan, Felicia Mureşanu, Cornel Cheţan, Allina Șimon
Abstract: The soybean cultures are yearly affected, with different frequency and intensity, by the bacterial blight of soybean (Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea) and by the downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica). In the years with favourable conditions, they can produce significant losses, the data from the speciality literature mention losses of up to 100% in the Far East. Together with the main symptom from the plant leaves, the infected plants make few pods, with few seeds or sterile pods. In the years 2018 and 2019, under the conditions from SCDA Turda, the attack of bacterial blight and downy mildew was monitored at the Felix variety, in three different tillage systems: classic (SC), conservative – minimal tillage (MT) and conservative – no tillage (NT). Following the observations made, we can say that the tillage system influences the growth and the development of plants, as well as the occurence and the intensity of the illnesses and pest attack. The highest values in the frequency and intensity of the bacterial blight attack were recorded in systems of direct sowing of the soybean. As for the attack of downy mildew, the lowest values were obtained within the conservative tillage system.
Keywords: soybean, tillage systems, downy mildew, bacterial blight
SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS WITH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE FOR EGGPLANT CROPS IN THE FIELD
Alina Mihaela Buzatu, Gabriela Șovărel, Marcel Costache, Ana-Emilia Cenușă,Simona-Ștefania Hogea, Cristea Stelica
Abstract: The experiment was done in 2017 at RDIVFG-Vidra and has as purpose controlling of soil borne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae and Verticillium dahliae which produce vascular wilting of eggplants. The experimental variants were as follows: V1. Topsin 500SC 0.14%, 0.5 litres/plant (on the soil), 2 treatments at 30 days interval, V2. Topsin 500SC 0.3% (foliar), 6 treatments at 10 days intervals, V3. Altosan 10 litres/ha, 0.5 l/plant (on the soil), 2 treatments at 30 days interval, V4. Condor 2kg/ha, 0.5 litres/plant (on the soil), 2 treatments at 30 days interval and V5. Untreated control. The best results were obtained at V2 (84.4% average eficacy, yield 3.952 kg/m2) and at V1 (76.4% average eficacy, yield 3.890 kg/m2) as compared to V5 (untreated control) where the yield was 3.370 kg/m2. Altosan (V3) was noted among the ”bio” products with an average efficacy of 67.5% and a yield of 3.615 kg/m2.
Keywords: soil pathogens, eggplants, field
THE INFLUENCE OF THE DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON THE ABUNDANCE OF PESTS IN THE SOY CULTURE, IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE TRANSYLVANIA PLAIN
Felicia Cheţan, Felicia Mureşanu, Dana Malschi, Cornel Cheţan, Loredana Suciu
Abstract: The agro-ecological conditions of the area, in particular the changes of the microclimate related to global warming, as well as the changes of the culture technologies, constitute a diversity of factors that influence the level of the populations of pests. The research carried out at ARDS Turda in 2018 and 2019 aimed to find out the dependence link between the soil processing mode and the climatic conditions on the abundance of pests and soybean yield. The soybean yield is influenced by climatic conditions and soil tillage system. The application of unconventional soil tillage systems to soybean cultivation favors the abundance and frequency of the attack of Tetranychus urticae and Vanessa cardui.
Keywords: soybean, clime, pests, tillage system, yield
CONTROL OF PATHOGENS WITH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE FOR EGGSPLANT CROPS IN THE FIELD
Gabriela Șovărel, Marcel Costache, Ana-Emilia Cenușă, Simona-Ștefania Hogea
Abstract: The experiment was done at RDIVFG Vidra in 2017. The objective was to develop treatment programs for control of pathogens Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica which attacks the foliage and fruits of eggplants. The following treatment schemes were used: Variant 1 (T1. Bravo 500SC 0.2%, T2. Melody Compact 49WG 0.2%, T3. Bravo 500SC 0.2%, T4. Melody Compact 49WG 0.2%, T5. Ortiva Top 0.1%, T6. Bravo 500SC 0.2%); Variant 2 (T1. Cabrio Top 0.2%, T2. Melody Compact 49WG 0.2%, T3. Cabrio Top 0.2%, T4. Melody Compact 49WG 0.2%, T5. Ortiva Top 0.1%; T6. Cabrio Top 0.2%); Variant 3 (T1. Polyram DF 0.2%, T2. Melody Compact 49WG 0.2%, T3. Polyram DF 0.2%, T4. Melody Compact 49 WG 0.2%, T5. Ortiva Top 0.1%, T6. Polyram DF 0.2%); Variant 4 (untreated control). Six treatments were applied at 14 - 16 days. The pathogens attack had a slow evolution due to the maximum atmospheric humidity, relatively reduced from July to August (52.4-74.7 %, average of 61.2%) and poor rainfall (15 mm in the first and last ten days of July and in 1-20 August). At the end of September, the frequency of the attacked fruits was 5.9% at Ph. parasitica and 8.1% at B. cinerea and the degree of attack of the pathogen A. solani 10.9%. Under these conditions, the average efficacy of the treatments ranged from 79.7% (V3) to 85.5% (V2). Among variants, the yields of field eggplant crop ranged from 3.872 kg/m2 (V3) to 3.972 kg/m2 (V2) and 3.450 kg/m2 for the untreated control.
Keywords: pathogens, eggplants, field
MEDICINAL PLANT HELICHRYSUM STOECHAS AND ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI – HINTS OF ECOLOGY
Samuel Rodriguez-Sabina, Andreea Cosoveanu, Laia Guardia, Raimundo Cabrera
Abstract: The genus Helichrysum is a valuable source of essential oils with medicinal properties. Eighty endophytic fungi have been isolated from 8 Helichrysum stoechas plants belonging to two different biotypes of Catalonia. Based on their morphology, 10 different genera have been identified while other have been assigned to 21 OTUs. The colonization rate was similar in both locations (71.53% and 67.36%) and in the entire plants (60-75%). In plant organs values ranged between 50 and 91.67. The PDA was the nutrient medium which provided the highest number of different colonies considering all three media used (PDA, MEA and LCA). The colonization frequency index showed a tendency of the genera and OTUs to specificity of a single organ (21 OTUs and genera were obtained from a single organ, 8 from two organs and only 1 from all the organs used), and nutrient medium (18 OTUs and genera were isolated in a single nutrient medium, 9 in two nutrient media and only 3 in all media used). The most frequent genera / OTUs were Alternaria and OTU1.
Keywords: aromatic plant, microbiome, ecology
DIVERSIFICATION OF IN VITRO CULTIVATION METHODS OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)
Lavinia Diana Nicoleta Barbu, Oana Livadariu, Oana-Alina Boiu-Sicuia
Abstract: In the past 20 years, in vitro cultures rate has increased, especially for plants of economic interest. Propagation of cells, tissues and organs cultures can be performed in glass or various plastic vessels. Regardless of the material from which they are made of, these vessels may have different sizes and shapes (flasks, Erlenmayer shape flasks, square dishes, roller bottles, tubes, etc.), but the most important aspect in their use is the absence of toxic trace elements release. Containers intended for in vitro cultures should be sterilized to eliminate the possibility of contamination of the plant material or the nutritive substrate. Tomato plants are of high economic interest. When grown in greenhouses or in the field, they are exposed to a number of pests and diseases attack, from seed germination to seedlings and till fruiting. The in vitro cultures can provide an alternative to classical methods of seed germination and seedlings production. Through propagation the seedlings are free of pathogens without pesticides exposure as in classical protection methods. This study presents an in vitro growth method to obtain first stage tomato seedlings, using plastic food containers of polypropylene. This propagation method showed that the food containers made of polypropylene can be safely used for in vitro cultures of tomato seedlings, as the phytopathogenic contamination of both plant material and nutrient substrate was reduced.
Keywords: tomato, propagation, in vitro growth containers
METHOD OF IMPROVING THE BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF NATURAL FERTILIZERS
Ana-Cristina Fătu, Mihaela-Monica Dinu, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: It is presented a method to obtain soil improvers substrates using microbial biomass with potential tocolonize some natural fertilizers resulted as waste from agro-industrial activities; they increase the biologicalproperties of the soil and have a direct effect on the plants, stimulating their growth, favouring the healthydevelopment of the root system, improving the resistance to stress, thus increasing the defence against pests. Itwas experienced complex organic fertilizers, useful for all crops and all soil types (including unstructured, poorhumus soils) and which improve the water retention capacity, soil heating and soil microbial activity. Theprocess is based on the principle of organic farmingregarding the exploitation of natural resources and offers asolution of ecological efficiency of the biological means of plant protection, by using indigenousmicroorganisms with bioecological potential adapted to the pedoclimatic conditions in Romania, with simplenutritional requirements, with the ability to degrade the nutrient substrate represented by organic fertilizersresulted as waste from agro-industrial activities.
Keywords: manure, compost, Beauveria bassiaana, B. brongniartii
INSECT FAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH SUNFLOWER CULTIVATED IN SYSTEM WITH BLACK LOCUST WINDBREAKS
Andrei Teodoru, Andrei Chiriloaie-Palade, Dumitru Manole, Traian Manole, Constantina Chireceanu
Abstract: A study was performed in 2018, to evaluate the Entomofauna in a sunflower crop in system with black locust windbreaks in the field of SC SPORT AGRA SRL Amzacea, Constanța County, the eastern part of Romania. Insects were collected on yellow sticky traps inside the windbreaks and in two parallel planes in the sunflower crop of 100 ha at two distances from the windbreaks (50 and 300 m). Five traps per site were used changed every two weeks from mid-June to early August. The results showed that the number of species inside the black locust windbreaks was 22 with a total of 3595 specimens, in the sunflower plane near the windbreaks were 19 species with a total of 3817 specimens and in the distant sunflower plane were 17 species which totalled3570 specimens. The composition of the beneficial fauna was represented by 12 species in the windbreaks, 8 in sunflower plane 1 and 6 in sunflower plane 2. Percentage ratio of beneficial and harmful species from the two sunflower planes and from the black locust windbreaks was calculated as well as the ecological parameters (abundance, dominance, constancy and ecological significance).
Keywords: beneficial insects, insect pests, biodiversity, sunflower
PHYTOSANITARY STATUS AND YIELD CAPACITY OF SOME SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS IN SOUTH DOBROGEA
Ioan Radu, Dumitru Manole, Lorena-Roxana Gurau, Vasile Jinga
Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.) is cultivated in Dobrogea on about 200,000 ha, accounting 20% of the total cultivated area in Romania. The aim of this study was to reveal the sunflower hybrids suitable for being cultivated in Dobrogea under conditions of non-irrigated culture. Twenty hybrids of Romanian and foreign origin were considered. Experimental plots were organized in the field of SC SPORT AGRA SRL in Amzacea in 2019. There were analysed the yield performances and the behaviour to the main pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Phomopsis helianthi and Alternaria helianthi and also to the parasitic plant Orobanche cumana. Rainfall in the vegetation period in 2019 amounted 134.5 mm being one of the driest years of the last decade. Phytosanitary status of plants was assessed on June 26th and July 11th. Except Clayton, all hybrids recorded a hectolitre weight over 40 kg/hl. Yields over 3000 kg/ha were obtained for 85 % of hybrids. Genesis was seeding at two different times and when it was seeding earlier the yield was higher with 1038 kg/ha. The highest degree of attack was 15% to Aromatic for S. sclerotiorum, 24.5% to Bellona for P. helianthi and 36% to Bellona for A. helianthi.
Keywords: oil crop, hybrids behaviour, pathogens, climate change, yield indicator
THE „ARION-PANIN” ENTOMOLOGICAL COLLECTION OF THE RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE FOR PLANT PROTECTION, PIECE OF SCIENTIFIC AND MUSEOLOGICAL PATRIMONY
Daniel Kazimir V.B.D. Kurzeluk
Abstract: The Arion-Panin entomological collection belonging to the Research-Development Institute for Plant Protection contains material collected by Sergius Panin, George Arion and also pieces collected by Franz Salay. The collecting period covers the interval comprised mostly between 1930-1950, but the oldest pieces date back around 1890-1900.. The insects are pinned, their disposition inside the boxes is original and the conservation status is generally good, considering the age of the collection. Label data contain details of locality and date, useful in terms of historical distribution records for the investigated specimens. The Coleoptera material was used in the elaboration of i) the first Romanian Coleoptera identification key and ii) the elaboration of four of the Coleoptera fascicules of the „Fauna of Romania” monographic series, Holotypes of two Coleoptera speciesdescribed by Panin are conserved. The collection catalogue is presently lost. Writing a collection catalogue (first for Coleoptera) together with cleaning of the pieces and implementation of standard conservation measures would increase the value and lifespan of the collection.
Keywords: Arion-Panin collection; entomological collection, Potosia bessarabica, Carabus antipai, type specimen.
RESEARCH ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE MAJOR PEST OF SYCAMORE TREE (Platanus spp.) IN THE BOLINTIN DEAL NURSERY
Irina Ioana (Bălănescu) Neacșu, Adriana Muscalu, Ioan Roșca
Abstract: In 2014-2018, a study was conducted to observe the evolution of the lace bug Corythucha ciliate (Say) and the mining moth Phyllonorycter platani (Staudinger) on the sycamore tree leaves, and the soil pests as well. C. ciliata, which causes the yellowing of sycamore tree leaves, was observed in the Bolintin Deal nursery in August 2014, whose attack on the leaves was between 1.31-6.31% during August-October, with a maximum number of 45 adults and nymphs / colonized leaf. During the years 2015-2018, between April and October, the
percentage of trees attacked was between a minimum of 1.58% in 2016 and a maximum of 29.17% in 2015. P.platani on the sycamore tree were also reported in 2014. There were observed leaves with characteristic symptoms (more or less oval, subeliptical forms mines) and leaves with obvious discoloured areas (with the upper edges arched and the lower and crested lower cuticle). The sycamore mine moth is part of the group of invasive species of Lepidoptera Gracilariidae which have an obvious economic and/or ecological effect and have expanded in Europe over the last 20 years. The mining moth was present from April to October. The mines formed in October and November are larger and evident on the leaves, often several mines on the same leaf. In 2014, during the August-October period, out of the total of the leaves attacked, 41.38% presented only one mine/leaf, 6.9% two mines/leaf, 17.24% three mines/leaf and 34.48% five mines/leaf. In the following years the percentage of mines per leaf was between 14.1% for 5 mines/leaf and 46.1% for 1 mine/leaf. As regards the soil fauna, the main groups of soil pests (wire worms, white worms and grey worms) were evaluated. The numerical density of larvae was somewhat uniform, and the populations of wire worms are predominant.
Keywords: lace bug, mining moth, soil pests, sycamore tree
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CALLITEARA PUDIBUNDA L. ON BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (Bals.)Vuill. ROMANIAN STRAINS
Ana-Cristina Fătu, Mihaela-Monica Dinu, Cristina-Maria Ţane, Daniel Cojanu, Constantin Ciornei, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: The paper presents the results of some infectivity tests that aimed the evaluation of the insecticidal potential of some Beauveria bassiana indigenous strains against the Calliteara pudibunda larvae. Under laboratory conditions, indigenous B. bassiana strains isolated from different hosts and geographic zones were tested: two strains isolated from adult beetles (Ips typographus and Tanymecus dilaticollis) and one strain isolated from a lepidopteran larva (Lymantria dispar). The test methodology included the application of fungal conidia formulated as a powder, respectively as aqueous suspension (x109 conidia/ml), on Prunus cerasifera leaves, administered as food to C. pudibunda larvae.
Keywords: Calliteara pudibunda, Beauveria bassiana
POWDERY MILDEW CONTROL BY UNPOLLUTANT METHODS IN APPLE ORCHARDS WITH SULPHUR BASED ON PRODUCTS
Daniel Jalobă, Marga Grădilă
Abstract: Powdery mildew is one of the most damaging and common diseases of the apple, being caused by the fungus Podosphaera leucotricha. In the years with favorable conditions for the disease infection, especially for the sensitive varieties, it may produce important damages in the orchards, because it can manifest throughout the growing season. This disease can affect from the beginning of the vegetation the young leaves and shoots, flowers and even fruits in a situation of severe infection. Sulphur-based products are contact fungicides that provide good protection against powdery mildew without polluting the environment. The mechanism of action is a multi - site, with low risk of occurrence of the pathogen resistance phenomenon. This paper highlights the effectiveness of the two sulphur - based on products in controlling powdery mildew in three apple orchards where no other fungicides have been applied. The products tested in the trials were: Polisulf, Sulfomat 80 PU and Kumulus DF (standard product). Data obtained demonstrated that the efficacy of Polisulf at the proposed
rate of 30 l/ha and Sulfomat 80 PU at the proposed rate of 4.5 kg/ha was equivalent or close to the efficacy of the reference product Kumulus DF at 4.5 kg/ha against P. leuchotricha in apple.
Keywords: Powdery mildew, apple orchard, sulphur - based on products, effectiveness
BENEFITS OF APPLYING BIOPRODUCTS FOR IMPROVE SOIL NUTRIENT CONTENT AND FERTILITY IN TOMATO AND SOYBEAN CROPS – MINIREVIEW
Cristina Petrisor, Andrei Chiriloaie-Palade
Abstract: In recent years, agricultural and horticultural crops are subject to different abiotic and biotic factors, such as low soil fertility, low soil water supply, extreme temperatures and pathogens. Current soil management strategies depend mainly on chemical fertilizers which represents a serious threat to human health and the environment. In this context, for sustainable agriculture, an increased attention was directed to conservation of natural resources, reducing of the environmental degradation, being developed conventional agricultural systems with minimal application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on different crops. At present, various beneficial microorganisms are used as biofertilizers having a key role in maintaining soil structure and fertility in environmental protection, being a low cost friendly measure and a renewable source of nutrients for plants replacing with successful chemical fertilizers in the sustainable agriculture system. Application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) is a promising technology for sustainable agriculture, leading to the high and healthy yield, solving the problem of feeding an increasing human populations under the conditions of the application of some modern agricultural practices. The present study presents the positive effect of applying biofertilizers based on Trichoderma spp. in terms of nutrient uptake, increased productivity and crop quality tomatoes and soybean.
Keywords: biofertilizers, sustainable agriculture, crop improvement