THE MICROFUNGAL COMMUNITY OF TWO BLUEBERRY VARIETIES (VACCINIUM MYRTHILLUS L.) WITH
PESTALOTIOPSIS SP. AS A DOMINANT TAXON
Authors:Lavinia Barbu, Ioan Radu, Andreea Cosoveanu*
Abstract: Two varieties of blueberry plants (i.e. Legacy and Bluegold) with fungal disease symptoms were evaluated to detect the phytopathogenic agent that caused the change of the regular morphology to "zebra stripes” and spots. Stems, leaves and shoots of four plant hosts were used as a source of biological material with a total of 114 plant fragments. The media used to isolate fungal microorganisms were yeast malt agar (YMA), corn meal agar (CMA), and organic substrate - carrots. 59 strains were isolated, grouped and identified as 11 organizational taxonomic units (OTUs), Chaetomium sp., Fusarium sp., Alternaria spp. and Pestalotiopsis sp. Alternaria strains were considered one organizational taxonomic unit (OTU) - Alternaria Section alternata.
Key words: phytopathogens, shrubs, microorganisms
TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM AS A BIOCONTROL AGENT AGAINST BIPOLARIS SP. AND CHRYSOSPORIUM SP. ON GRAPE FRUITS
Authors:Mokhtar Hamitou*, Laid Dehimat, M. Mourad Senoussi
Abstract: The present investigation aimed is to isolate and identify the mycetes accompanying the grape (Vitis vinifera) fruits and to evaluate in vitro the ability of Ttrichoderma harzianum to control the isolated mycetes. Some infected grape fruits by mycetes were brought from Oum-Elbouaghi market. The results of isolation allowed the identification of Bipolaris sp. and Chrysosporium sp. One isolate of T. harzianum / Hypocrea lixii was utilized in this study.
Key words: Bipolaris sp., vitis vinifera, confrontation, slide methods.
THE FIRE BLIGHT (ERWINIA AMYLOVORA), A DANGEROUS DISEASE FOR FRUITING TREES (ROSACEAE) ORCHARDS
Authors:Sergiu Fendrihan#, Marian Lixandru
Abstract: The fire blight produced by the bacteria Erwinia amylovora infects many orchards of fruit trees from our country and from all over the world. Much effort are made for detection in time of the infection, and to find new solution for treatment and prevention, from chemical pesticides to biological control solutions, very required in the last times. The paper reviews all problems of fire blight biology and control, and measures to be taken to enhance research in this field.
Key words: fire blight, chemical and biological control solutions
THE INFLUENCE OF THE MICROCLIMATE CREATED BY THE FOREST BELT ON WEED INFESTATION IN THE SUNFLOWER CROPS
Authors: Marga Grădilă, Daniel Jalobă, Dumitru Manole,
Abstract: The establishment of protective belt and the setting of crops within the microclimate created by them, also favourable to sunflower crop, represent one of the most effective measures for mitigating the effects of drought in Dobroudja region. The researches were carried out at Amzacea, Constanta County, in sunflower crops cultivated in the forest belt system. For each plot there have been drawn up weed infestation sheets that indicate the density, participation and the constancy. The data has been centralized for the determination of dominant species and problem weed species that require treatments.
Keywords: Forest belt, weeds, sunflower crops
CARDUUS NUTANS AND ERYNGIUM CAMPESTRE - PROBLEM WEEDS FOUND IN PERMANENT GRASSLAND OF BĂICOI, PRAHOVA COUNTY
Author: Daniel Jalobă1*, Marga Grădilă1, Nicolae Ionescu2
Abstract:The problem weed species, especially perennial, aggressive, potentially invasive ones, may cause various, large-scale and irrecoverable damages by reducing crop yields quantitatively and qualitatively, generating grasslands degradation, hindering maintenance works, rising production costs, producing toxic effects for both humans and livestock, as well as hosting, favoring and transmitting diseases and pests.
Key words: problem weeds, grasslands, pastoral value.
THE BEHAVIOR OF NEW BARLEY AND WHEAT VARIETIES AT S.C. SPORT AGRA-AMZACEA, UNDER 2018 CONDITIONS
Author: Dumitru Manole, Ana Maria Giumba, Vasile Jinga*, Ioan Radu
Abstract:The paper presents the behavior of some wheat and barley varieties under 2018 conditions in Dobrogea area. In demonstrative plots carried out at S.C. SPORT AGRA SRL Amzacea, Constanța County is presented data about the main pathogens and yield results. Climatic conditions of autumn 2017 and spring 2018 favoured a major attack of pathogens. For barley a high attack of Rhyncosporium secalis with an attack rate (AR) of 6-30% and Pyrenophora teres in a lower attack rate of 3-20% in most varieties was reported in the April 17 observations.
Key words: barley, wheat, pathogens, yields.
THE BEHAVIOR OF SOME SUNFLOWER HYBRIDES AGAINST THE MAIN PATHOGENS DURING 2018 IN DOBROGEA
Author: Vasile Jinga*, Dumitru Manole, Ana Maria Giumba, Ioan Radu
Abstract:In this paper, the behavior of 15 sunflower hybrids was observed at the attack of the main pathogens (Phomopsis helianthi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria helianthi) on demonstrative plots set up at S.C. SPORT AGRA SRL in Amzacea, Constanta County, within the climate conditions of year 2018. The hybrids taken into account come from seed companies: Ciproma, Syngenta, Euralis, Limagrain and Pioneer.
Key words: sunflower, hybrids behavior, Dobrogea, yields
EXPLORING ENDOPHYTIC POTENTIAL OF AN AUTOCHTHONOUS STRAIN OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (Bals.) Vuill. (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES)
Author: Dinu Mihaela Monica*, Fătu Ana-Cristina, Andrei Ana-Maria
Abstract:The overall objective of the method presented was to investigate the endophytic potential of an autochthonous strain of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), isolated from a natural outbreak and maintained in the RDIPP Bucharest Collection of entomopathogenic microorganisms, for evaluation of its biological control potential. For this experiment, young plants of Capsicum anuum L. (Solanaceae) were planted in pots with pre-sterilized soil.
Key words: biological control, endophytic fungi, B. bassiana, entomopathogenic
CURRENT METHODS OF INTEGRATED PEST PREVENTION AND CONTROL IN BEAN CULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Author: Chiriloaie - Palade Andrei*, Petrișor Cristina
Abstract:Currently, as a result of anthropogenic activities such as uncontrolled deforestation, industrialization, water pollution, soil, major climate change takes place. Agricultural production will certainly be one of the most affected industries over the next decade. Bean culture is a relatively easy product, versatile, an important source of protein, carbohydrates, some vitamins and micronutrients. In view of these beneficial effects and the high economic value (occupying the third place after soybeans and peanuts for oilseeds), contemporary research sought methods of integrated pest control against bean crops, most notably the bean beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus.
Key words: agriculture, climat changes, beans, Acanthoscelides obtectus
DOCCUMENTARY STUDY OF THE BIO-ECOLOGY OF THE XYLOPHAGOUS BEETLE ANOBIUM PUNCTATUM DEGEER 1774, PEST OF THE PATRIMONIAL WOODEN OBJECTS
Author: Kurzeluk Daniel Kazimir
Abstract:Anobium punctatum DeGeer 1774 (Coleoptera: Polyphaga: Anobiidae), generally known as ‘the common furniture beetle’ or 'woodworm', is the most important pest causing the degradation of wooden heritage items. Both the larvae and the adults are xylophagous. Both the larval and the adult stages cause damages to the wooden objects. The wood ingested is further processed in the digestive tube by a microflora specialized in cellulose degradation. The adults bore into the wood a nuptial gallery, in which the copula and the egg-laying occur. The larvae bore galleries irregularly developed, in which they pupate.
Key words: Anobium punctatum, life cycle, patrimonial wooden objects, control
EVALUATION METHODS OF ANTAGONISTIC MICROORGANISMS, NATURAL RESOURCES OF ECOSYSTEMS – minireview
Author: Sorina Dinu*, Cristina Petrişor, Florica Constantinescu
Abstract:This review focused on the beneficial effects of inoculant microorganisms on plant crops and their application in agriculture. Particular emphasis is given to the potential and current use of sustainable agricultural technologies to ensure food security and smart use of natural resources. The advantages of these technologies are: i) no harmful to the environment but, support the accordant development of ecosystems and, ii) lead to obtain healthy agricultural products.
Key words: inoculants, beneficial microorganisms, rhizosphere, agriculture.
VALORIFICATION METHODS OF THE ENTOMOPHAGOUS INSECTS IN ROMANIA – A HISTORICAL REVIEW
Author: Kurzeluk Daniel Kazimir
Abstract:Data concerning the use of the entomophagous insects in Romania are presented. The literature was reviewed and the works related to the important aspects concerning the presence, rearing, release, practical use, as well as physiology, ethology and the control of the life cycle of entomophagous insects were pursued.
Key words: entomophagous, biological control, Romania, historical
FOLIAR FERTILIZATION OF CULTIVATED PLANTS IMPROVE THEIR RESISTANCE TO ENVIROMENTAL STRESS AND PATHOGENS
Author: Marian Lixandru, Sergiu Fendrihan*
Abstract. Foliar treatment of plants is an up to date methods for fertilization. The biostimulation of plant metabolism was demonstrated. This review reveal the main aspects of the fertilization by foliar application. We show the importance of this method for plant protection against diseases and environmental stress.
Key words: Foliar fertilizers, biostimulation, plant protection
IMPORTANCE OF SOIL FAUNA FOR SOIL ORGANIC MATTER DYNAMIC IN AGROECOSYSTEMS
Author: Maria Iamandei
Abstract. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) is essential for soil fertility, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation and associated ecosystem services. Existing models of SOM dynamics do not take into account the important contribution of soil fauna activity. The explanation for this limitation is given, on the one hand, by the complexity of the interrelationships between the different categories of soil organisms and on the other by the existing gaps in knowledge on the biodiversity of soil fauna.