TESTING BioMelCon BIOINSECTICIDE IN SOME FOREST NURSERIES FROM BACAU COUNTY
Authors: Ana-Cristina Fătu, Mihaela-Monica Dinu, Constantin Ciornei, Ana-Maria Andrei
Key words: Beauveria brongniartii, forest nurseries, white grubs
Abstract: Promoting biological control method of root pests from forest nurseries is one of the basic requirements of European Community and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). In this context, forest departments within National Forest Administration (NFA) -ROMSILVA expressed their interest for the use of fungal bioinsecticide BioMelCon, produced by Research Development Institute for Plant Protection, Romania. The results capitalized by beneficiaries, i.e. biological insecticide technology and its application, have been the subject of research and development contract funded by NFA-ROMSILVA. We present our results in 2016. Application of BioMelCon was performed on total area of 1.9 hectares, in forest nurseries belonging to Forest Department of Bacau County. Two repeated treatments consisted in 75 kg/ha each were applied in unplanted high infested fields with Melolontha melolontha, Rhizotrogus aestivus and Anomala dubia. Incorporation into soil was carried out with a disc harrow attached to a tractor. In autumn, the soil results showed a good reduction of larval density and efficacy between 80 and 100% was registered. Also, artificial infection with B. brongniartii on two species of white grub, A. dubia and R. aestivus was reported.
RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF
LAURUS NOBILIS ESSENTIAL OIL ON ZEA MAYS KERNELS GERMINATION
Authors: Viorel Fătu, Roxana Dudoiu, Carmen Lupu
Abstract: In Romania, during the last few years, maize crop (Zea mays) faced new climatic conditions that lead to lower yields. The main cause of grain mass decrease per Ha is the low rainfall in June and July months, leading to the installation of pedological drought. To improve this situation, it was studied the possibility of corn seed germination at sub-optimal temperature, in order to soil water conservation for a longer period. In this study there were performed two experiments involving the use of Laurus nobilis essential oil as product for seed treatment. In the first experiment it was determined the optimal dose of L. nobilis essential oil, and in the second experiment it was tested the germination of treated seeds with optimal dose of essential oil at different temperatures. Data analysis showed that after 3 days, at 30ºC, L. nobilis essential oil in 1000 ppm concentration inhibited seed germination with 11% and radicle growth with 7%. At 15ºC, after 7 days from treatment, treated seeds with 1000 ppm L. nobilis essential oil had a 61.86% higher germination and 71.06% increased root growth compared to the untreated control.
Key words: Zea mays, essential oil, sub-optimal, germination
BIOPRODUCTS WITH LIVING MICROORGANISMS USED IN AGRICULTURE
Author Sergiu Fendrihan
Abstract: Modern agriculture means mass industrial production of agricultural plants for food and fodder with high level productivity hybrids and varieties, and modern mechanical machineries and application of chemicals and fertilizers. It has some side effects too, pollution of soil, water, destruction of biodiversity, and so on. In the last 50 years, many countries in special in course of development, tried to use bioproducts to supply their needs for fertilization and control of pests and pathogens using biotechnology, with the help of different beneficial microorganisms. This paper reviews the tendency and explains the achievements in this field of research and the dawn of a new era in international and national agriculture.
Key words: bioproducts, biofertilizers, biopesticides, agricultural biotechnology
RESEARCH REGARDING THE IMPROVEMENT OF SUNFLOWER CROP TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH-EASTERN DOBROGEA IN THE CONTEXT OF CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGES
Authors: Vasile Jinga, Roxana Dudoiu, Carmen Lupu, Dumitru Manole, Ana Maria Giumba
Abstract: At Sport Agra in Amzacea, in the last few years there have been experimented new sunflower crop technologies designed to face the current climate changes. This technology includes the following elements: application of herbicides in order to control both weeds and Orobanche Cumana Wallr. parasite – it was applied imazamox 40 g/l in dose of 1.2 l/ha, in fractions, in two phases (in first stage for weed control 0.7 l/ha and in second stage 0.5 l/ha, for the parasite control) in plots cultivated with various hybrids from Syngenta and Limagrain companies; application of last generation fungicides during the vegetation period, which will reduce the attack of the main crop pathogens. There were applied three fungicides during the two sensitive phenological phases, with the ALPHA 4100 equipment; Screening of hybrids with good behavior towards the main pest agent of area – Orobanche cumana parasite, which cause important yield losses in the south east past of Romania. There were tested 8 hybrids from Syngenta Company, 6 hybrids from Limagrain and 4 hybrids from National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea.
Key words: sunflower, behavior major pest, control
PRELIMINARY STUDY ON AIR DISPERSION OF
BEAUVERIA BASSIANA SPORES FROM FUNGAL GRANULATED BIOPRODUCT
Authors: Mihaela Monica Dinu, Ana-Cristina Fătu, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: Given the importance of the spread of spores released in a target habitat, the objective of this study was to monitor the biological control agent Beauveria bassiana in soil and air, after application of granulated bioproduct in solanaceous crops. The experiments were conducted over a period of 3 years (2013-2016); samples were collected monthly from May to September in potato and eggplant crops from Valcea County. Isolation of monitored microorganism B. bassiana was done on selective culture media: DOB50 for isolation from air and DOC2 for isolation from soil. Density dynamics of entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana in air was similar in treated and untreated variants, when assessments were made at a height of 100 cm and statistically significant (p<0.0023) when assessments were made at a height of 4 cm. Air density of fungal conidia was higher at 4 cm above the ground than at 100 cm above or even al soil level. The density in soil of entomopathogenic fungus did not registered statistical differences in treated plots, with a mean conidia density of 2.1 x 103 CFU/g soil.
Key words: Beauveria bassiana, dispersion, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
NEW FORMULATION OF ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTS USED FOR THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CEREALS WEEVIL,
Sitophilus granarius L. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS
Authors: Traian Manole, Carmen Lupu, Viorel Fătu , Mariana Popescu
Abstract: Treatments to protect the stored grains with synthetic chemical substances produce the accumulation of chemical residues in the stored product and may result in the occurrence of resistance of pests. The present study conducted by a research team from RDIPP and ICECHIM in 2016 was aimed at developing an ecological method to prevent and biological control of harmful deposits beetles, grain weevils being chosen target species. The project partner ICECHIM had conditioned three biological products (based on Thuja essential oil, Artemisia essential oil and diatomaceous earth) that were tested in three variants and 4 repetitions compared to an untreated control in laboratory conditions (temperature: 25±1°C, relative humidity: 64 ± 5). The insecticidal efficacy of the examined diatomaceous earth against the granary weevil was highly influenced by grain type, exposure time, products granulation and dose. The results showed that the tested products ensures a certain degree of infestation prevention and reduction of the species S. granarius population numerical density through the conditioning component of essential oils but with different concentrations of diatomaceous earth had an insecticide effect having a mortality rate with a meaning distinct semnificative value cpmpared with control variant in the case of the concentration of 900 ppm, combined with the two essential oils (3.1 ANOVA, Tukey's test, P> 0.001).
Key words: Sitophilus granarius, biological control, essential oils, diatomaceous earth, stored products
THE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF AMBLYSEIUS SWIRSKII AT.-H PREDATOR IN CONTROL OF ONION THRIPS THRIPS TABACI IN PEPPER CROP
Authos: Maria Călin, Tina Oana Cristea, Silvica Ambarus, Creola Brezeanu, Petre Marian Brezeanu, Marcel Costache, Gabriela Şovărel, Elena Bratu
Abstract: The paper presents results on the effectiveness of Amblyseius swirskii At.-H. (Arachnida, Mesostigmata, Phytoseiidae) releases in control of onion thrips Thrips tabaci on pepper cultivars collection in tunnels, at the Vegetable Research and Development Station Bacau, Romania, during 2015 - 2016. The trials of A. swirskii in thrips control were performed at the following release rates: 500,000; 700,000; 900,000 and 1 million mites/ha. Each variant area had 45 square meters. The results showed a different effectiveness of Amblyseius swirskii releases in reducing the trips attack according to the release rate. In variant with 500,000 mites/ha, the degree of attack was reduced from 15.4% in the first decade of August, to 1.5% in the third decade of September. Increasing of mite predator release rate at 700,000 exemplars/ha, had a powerful downward dynamic during the last decades of August and first decades of September. The release rate of A. swirski with 900 thousand or one million exemplars/ha had a greater efficacy in the last decade of August and September, reaching 92.43% in variant with one million mites/ha. These results were obtained in the conditions of upward dynamic of thrips attack degree in control trial (25.1% until the first decade of September). The data presented showed that, the reducing of thrips attack degree by release of A. swirskii mite on pepper crop is effective in August - September when the release rate was between 700,000 - 1,000,000 exemplars per ha.
Key words: onion thrips, predator releases.
SUSTAINABLE USE OF PREEMERGENT HERBICIDES IN RAPE CROPS
Authors: Marga Gradilă1*, Iulian Ene1, Costel Mihalaşcu 2
Abstract: Weed control in oilseed rape is a necessity, given both infestations with dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds and because of frequent drills that don’t allow for mechanical works. Pre-emergent herbicide in rape crops is an important link for obtaining stable crops. The paper presents data on the benefits of weed control in winter rape, herbicides applied at pre-emergence, aiming to improve the culture technology, so the beginning of winter the rape plants to be well developed to withstand low temperatures in winter and in spring to be able to continue vegetative cycle in the best conditions.
Key words: rape; control; weeds; herbicide.
DATABASE CONCERNING THE PREDATORS USED FOR THE PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS CONTROL IN GREENHOUSES
Authors: Maria Iamandei, Daniel Kazmir Kurzeluk
Abstract: The databases represent useful information sources for the development and implementing of the Integrated Pest Management Programs. The work describes the development and implementation of a database in which structure four sections are included. The first section comprises basic notions definitions in the field, in order to eliminate any possible confusions arising from erroneous information, incorrect translations taken from the literature etc. Section 2 represents the list / inventory of the useful insects and / or products used in the pest insects control in various greenhouses from the European Union. The list of Biological Control Agents (BCA) with potential use in greenhouses comprises 46 species, for each of them being described: the systematics, scientific name, synonyms, common name(s), species / group of pests for which its use is intended, the original and the E.U. distribution, countries in which is used and/or commercially produced; types of use (protected areas and /or field) and others. Section 3 comprises the list of successfully introduced species for use as BCA in the E.U. Section 4 comprises the producer / by products based on predators’ provider companies list. The database includes useful and accessible information for a large category of users; they can inform and select one of the available biological control alternatives.
Key words: database, predators, greenhouse
SELECTIVITY OF SOME PESTICIDES OVER DETRITIVORE SOIL MACROFAUNA (Eisenia foetida)
Authors: Daria-Gabriela Popa, Roxana Dudoiu, Cristina Fatu, Mihaela Dinu, Carmen Mincea*
Abstract. The use of pesticides on a large scale led to a considerable increase in agricultural production. In addition to the beneficial effects of pesticides, a risk assessment is required for their use on some soil and aquatic environment organisms. Earthworms are a bioindicator of chemical contamination of soil ecosystems. For these reasons, Eisenia foetida is used as standard species in ecotoxicological tests. For determining the selectivity of pesticides to this species it was tested the insecticide Nuprid 200 SC (imidacloprid), herbicide Sencor 600 SC (metribuzin) and the fungicide Consento 450 SC (propamocarb hydrochloride + fenamidone). Testing was performed according to OECD guideline applying the method with artificial soil; the products tested being applied at the doses used in agriculture, a double and a half. There were calculated the percentages of mortality
and according to their values, was determined the selectivity of the test substances at 7 and 14 days after the treatment. Based on the results, products Nuprid SC 200 and SC 600 Sencor falls in the highly selective and the fungicide Consento 450 SC belongs to the group of selective regarding detritivore soil entomofauna, registering percentages of mortality between 20% and 23%. The studies show that the plant protection products provide protection for detritivore macrofauna having a low environmental impact.
Key words: plant protection products, Eisenia foetida, selectivity
THE IMPACT OF SOME MICROBIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS TOWARDS USEFUL ENTOMOPHAUNA
Authors: Roxana Dudoiu, Daria Popa, Oana Boiu-Sicuia, Carmen Mincea*
Abstract: Sustainable agriculture involves the use of effective plant protection products, but in the same time with low environmental impact. The application of biological products represents an ecological and efficient method for pest control by using its natural enemies. The paper presents studies regarding the impact of some biological products, two with entomopathogenic action, and the other two with fungicide activity, used as potato crop treatment for pest control. The biological material consisted in biological active bacterial biomass based on Bacillus thuringiensis, biological active fungi biomass based on Beauveria bassiana, both with entomopathogenic activity, biological active biomass based on two Bacillus strains, respectively Bacillus safensis Rd.b2 şi B. subtilis B005, with strong fungicide activity. In order to establish the ecotoxicological impact of the selected products, there were performed “in vitro” tests on Eisenia foetida. The experiments targeted observations regarding the medium mortalities of the test specie induced by the biological products used. The percentages of survival were 96.66% for Rdb2 treatment, 93.34% for B005 treatment, 100% for B. bassiana treatment and 63.34% for Bacillus thuringiensis treatment.
Key words: ecotoxicology, biopesticides, Esenia foetida, selectivity.