THE INFLUENCE OF SEVERAL ABIOTIC FACTORS ON SOME BACTERIAL STRAINS OF PHYTOSANITARY USE
Authors: Sorina Dinu*, Oana Alina Sicuia, Florica Constantinescu
Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the main abiotic factors that interact with bacterial strains of phytosanitary use, for their application as biological control agent against pests in order to obtain microorganisms with high tolerance to abiotic environmental factors. Two bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis Bce2 and Bacillus sp. 83.2s were tested. In vitro experiments have shown that, the multiplication rate of bacterial strains into temperature range analyzed decreased direct proportion to temperature and senescence of bacterial cells was more emphasized at the higher temperature than optimum value of 27°C. Also, the culture medium with acidic pH (4.5) was not conducive to development of the Bacillus strains. Thus, Bce2 strain of B. subtilis was multiplied much better under alkalinity conditions up to pH 8.5, while 83.2s strain of Bacillus sp. grew better in slightly acidic pH of 5.5, the multiplication rate being lower with increasing of pH value.
Key words: abiotic factors, bacterial strains, pH
SCREENING OF TRICHODERMA SP. STRAINS FOR PRODUCING HYDROLITIC ENZYMES
Authors: Cristina Petrisor*, Alexandru Paica, Florica Constantinescu
Abstract: Besides other mechanisms of action, producing of lytic enzymes such as chitinases, glucanases, proteases, lipases have been associated with the ability of Trichoderma spp. to control pathogens. The abillty to produce lytic enzymes is a widespread property of rhizosphere fungi. The aim of this study was the screening of four Trichoderma strains for lytic enzymes production. Strains were tested to find their ability to produce chitinases and cellulose by plate method. The results obtained in this study using screening plate method demonstrated that all strains of Trichoderma studied are cellulase and chitinases producing. The Td85, Td50 strains had a medium enzymatic index and Tal12 and Td49 showed the highest enzymatic index for cellulolitic activity. The Td49 and Tal12 strains showed a large purple color zones with higher chitinase activity as compared to Td50 strain that show low chitinase activity.
Keywords: cellulase, chitinase, mycoparasitism
SOIL BEHAVIOUR OF SOME INDIGENOUS BEAUVERIA sp. STRAINS
Authors: Ana-Cristina Fătu, Mihaela Monica Dinu, Ana-Maria Andrei*
Abstract: This research was aimed to study the effect of organic matter content of soil on the Beauveria sp. persistence and distribution. Knowing that the behavior of conidia is not only dependent on the type of soil, but also on particularities of the fungal strains themselves (there are differences in fungal behavior between species and even strains), there were tested some indigenous Beauveria sp., who’s potential for long-term control of soil-dwelling pests is important to be known. In soil enriched with organic fertilizers, conidia vertical movement of strains was measured by recovery of colony-forming units (CFUs). In laboratory experiments it was found that the vertical movement of B. bassiana conidia was higher in fertilized soil, where it was registered 74% average CFUs recovery, compared to 68% in the unfertilized soil. B. brongniartii viability tests showed 86% average percentage of conidia germination, with a maximum value (91%) in the case of conidia isolated from humus and a minimum value (82%) when conidia was isolated from compost.
Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, B. brongniartii, persistence, vertical movement
METHOD FOR FUNGISTATIC ACTIVITY DETERMINATION OF THYMUS VULGARIS ESSENTIAL OIL
Authors:Viorel Fătu1,2*, Carmen Lupu1
Abstract: Several experiments of antimicrobial activity assessment of the essential oils were carried out using classical microbiological methods, involving the use of media with high water content. Because of the hydrophobic properties of essential oils, their contact with the target pathogens is limited by water films. From previous experience, it was demonstrated that the use of essential oils in vapour phase is more effective than in the dissolved form in the medium by means of an emulsifier. The method aims to assess the inhibitory activity of essential oils on cereals pathogens by the action of released vapor. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is calculated by assessing a biochemical compound found in the stored seeds (e.g. starch) which serves as energy substrate in pathogen metabolism. Using this method has determined the minimum inhibitor volume between 1-5μl thyme essential oil extract, evaporated in a liter of air for Aspergillus spp.
Key words: essential oil, antimicrobial, vapour phase, substrate
PRELIMINARY RESEARCH REGARDING OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL ANTIMYCOTIC ACTIVITY AGAINST STORED FUNGI
Authors: Roxana Dudoiu1*, Carmen Lupu1, Mariana Popescu2, Elena Radu2
Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. Worldwide, at the scientific community level there have been discovered a series of plant bioactive eco-friendly principles, and were performed a multitude of researches regarding the potential of essentials oils and mixture of organic volatile compounds, as alternative insecticides and antimicrobial fumigants for a sustainable agricultural production. The increased interest in alternative natural substances is driving the research community to find new uses and applications of these substances. EOs and their components show promising activities against many pathogens and spoilage microorganisms when tested in vitro. The use of combinations of EOs and their isolated components are thus new approaches to increase the efficacy of EOs in microorganisms’ control, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. Among promising alternative methods to control food spoilage much attention is being paid to the use of essential oils (EOs), and lately also to their activity in vapor phase. This paper presents preliminary research regarding the oregano essential oil antimycotic activity towards a series of stored fungi.
Key words: oregano oil, storage fungi, antimicrobial activity.
SUNFLOWER CULTIVAR BEHAVIOR AT THE BROOMRAPE ATTACK IN SOUTH-EASTERN AREA OF ROMANIA
Authors: Vasile Jinga* 1, Roxana Dudoiu1, Anamaria Giumba 2
Abstract: In Romania, one of the most dangerous parasites on the plants is the Broomrape (Orobanche sp). Within the sunflower fields there was identified the population of weedy broomrapes of Orobanche cumana Wallr. This specie has shown a significant dissemination, especially in the south and south-eastern area of the country. On sunflower cultures in the areas heavily infested with the Broomrape especially in the south and south-eastern area of the country, such as are those in Dobrogea, the losses reach 30- 70% of the harvest. This paper presents a study regarding the behavior of some sunflower cultivars against O. cumana studied under natural contamination conditions at S.C. Sport Agra SRL Amzacea, Constanta county, best results have showed the following hybrids: Festiv, Turbo, Neoma, Alego and Sunay.
Key words: Orobanche sp., sunflower cultivars, herbicides.
RESEARCHES REGARDING THE KNOWLEDGE AND CONTROL OF SPECIFIC PESTS FROM SUNFLOWER CROPS, UNDER THE CENTER OF MOLDOVA CONDITIONS
Authors:Elena Trotuş*, Alexandra - Andreea Buburuz
Abstract: Worldwide, among the plants that produce cooking oil, the sunflower ranks third within the herbaceous oleifera plants. The fruits of these plants (achenes) contain at the new grown forms over 50% oil, with exceptional food quality (taste, smell and pleasant colour, high nutritional value, caloric value and degree of assimilation near the value of butter cow value) and high degree of conservability. The sunflower productions are reduced with 20 – 30% by a wide range of specific pathogen agents and pests that attack crops from sowing to harvesting. From those over 35 species of pests signalled in sunflower crops of the country, which theoretically reduce the biological potential of the cultivated hybrids, in the Central area of Moldova the production losses are caused by soil pests (Agriotes sp., Tanymecus sp, Opatrum sabulosum, Crepidodera sp.) that affect the crops in the phenophases between sowing – germination – emergence – formation of the first 5 – 7 leaves. Within the integrated control system, the most effective method for the protection of seeds from soil in the process of sprouting and of young plants until the phase of 5 – 7 leaves is the seed chemical treatment. In A.R.D.S. Secuieni conditions it was experimented a wide range of insecticides and insecto-fungicides, applied in seed treatment, the effectiveness of which contributed to the obtaining of high quantity and quality productions.
Keywords: specific pests, sunflower, insecticides, seed treatment.
THE HAWTHORN FRUIT FLY, ANOMOIA PURMUNDA HARRIS - A LESS KNOWN SPECIES IN ROMANIA
Authors: Andrei Teodoru*, Andrei Chiriloaie, Constantina Chireceanu
Abstract: The occurrence of the hawthorn fruit fly, Anomoia purmunda, was monitored using Tephri type traps placed on the Crataegus monogyna and Ziziphus jujube trees in Băneasa area (the Southern part of Romania) in 2014-2015 period. In this paper there are presented the results on abundance and adults’ population dynamics collected in Tephri type traps. The flight period of adults lasted from June to October. The flies captured in the traps placed on hawthorn were more numerous than those in the traps placed on Chinese date trees. Only hawthorn fruits showed the larval infestation that reached the value of 52.2%. Original images and the morphological description of the species are also presented.
Keywords: Anomoia purmunda, hawthorn, population dynamics, fruit flies
BEHAVIOUR OF THE INSECT SPECIES SITOPHILUS GRANARIUS L. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN THE PRESENCE OF VOLATILE THYME OIL
Authors: Traian Manole *, Viorel Fătu
Abstract: Interaction between pest insects in warehouses and food source is based essentially on a series of biochemical stimuli at the level of the chemo-olfactory species system. Feeding behaviour of the harmful population is registered in the genetic code of pest species and ethologically translates by interacting at the biochemical and metabolic level. The present study tested the behaviour of species Sitophilus granarius L., grown under controlled conditions in a number of generations on wheat grains to an ecological biocontrol product, obtained from Thymus vulgaris L., plants, biologically active against of a number of insect species. Insect behaviour has been tested in two different stages in controlled conditions, in the first phase was tested the reaction of the insect against three volatile oils settling strong repellent nature of the active ingredient derived from Th. vulgaris plants, later settling reaction to the essential thyme oil in experimental pots that simulate the environmental conditions in warehouses.The results indicate that in low doses in the stored product, the essential oil of thyme induce of the individuals of the harmful population disruption of the rhythm of feeding and changing motility which allows a closer and faster contact with the organic product based on diatomaceous earth.
Key words: grain storage, volatile essential oil, Sitophilus granarius
EFFECTIVENESS OF MAIN SOURCES OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FROM ROMANIA ON POPULATIONS OF SITOPHILUS GRANARIUS L. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
Authors: Carmen Lupu*, Traian Manole, Andrei Chiriloaie
Abstract: The efficacy of 3 samples of diatomaceous earth from Pătârlagele, Urloaia and Adamclisi sources was assessed against a standard product (PyriSec®) and an untreated control, on a population of Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) grown on natural feed (wheat grains), under laboratory controlled conditions. Bioassays were conducted in plastic jars at a temperature of 25±2ᴼC and relative humidity 75%, in which were introduced insects (30 individuals/replicate), on natural feed (50g wheat grains) and diatomaceous earth it was administered at a dose of 900 ppm. Observations were made at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days after the administration of natural product, percent of mortality for each variant were recorded. The results indicate an increased mortality of weevil individuals from tested variants, compared to standard product and untreated control, the percentage values between 83.33% (Urloaia and Adamclisi sources) and 100% for Pătârlagele source. After 60 days from the beginning of the experiment was evaluated the population's ability to reproduce in the mentioned conditions and to produce offspring; the diatomaceous earth product (source from Pătârlagele) has blocked the development of insects reproduction shortly after the administration (mean ±0-1 individuals /replicate).
Key words: grain storage, insecticide, diatomaceous earth, Sitophilus granarius
POSSIBILITIES FOR THE USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE IN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY
Authors: Maria Iamandei1*, Zorin Ivan2
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles, known as "drone" / "UAVs" / “airRobots”/ "RPAs" / etc., are flying vehicles remote controlled by a specialized operator, through a ground control stations (GCS), consisting of a laptop, a navigation software and radio modems. The paper contents a brief presentation of the current status and some advantages in using UAV systems, as a feasible alternative or as a complementary method for various agricultural and environmental applications. Worldwide, in precision agriculture, UAVs are already used for the following applications with positive results: (i) field monitoring to find areas with pest attacks on crops; (ii) local application of plant protection treatments, with quantities reduced to attack surfaces; (iii) determination of plant water stress in order to optimize water consumption; (iv) production forecasting; (v) assessment of crop damage or calamity etc. The paper also includes an overview of the structural characteristics and parameters of an UAV of multi-rotor type, equipped with various sensors which was developed and tested in Romania for crops and forestry monitoring, ready to use in remote sensing scientific programs (NDVI calculation, achievement of aerial photographs and maps etc.), the Romanian market starting to be receptive to this new technology.
Key words: UAV, remote sensing, precision agriculture, forestry
TIMELINE EVOLUTION OF MAXIMUM RESIDUE LEVELS FOR ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS
Authors: Daria Gabriela Popa*, Roxana Dudoiu, Carmen Mincea, Klaus Fabritius
Abstract: Setting maximum limits for residues of plant protection products is particularly important in order to avoid negative effects on food security and consequently on human health. Over time the maximum acceptable values of residue levels have been modified according to the legislation. To highlight timeline evolution of these MRL for the active substances in plant protection products, the paper presents the residue limits within tree representative official documentation which in chronological order are as follows: Detailed hygiene rules regarding foods and sanitary protection, standardized in M.S Order. no 611/1995, compared with the order M.A. regarding maximum levels for pesticide residues in plants and plant products no. 95/224/2001 and the legislation at European level, the REGULATION (EC) No 396/2005 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 February 2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC. The results of the analysis show that during the period studied, the maximum acceptable residue levels of plant protection products on harvested vegetables, have decreased significantly, which demonstrates a strong focus on food safety and consumer protection.
Key words: maximum residue levels, residues, active substance, consumer protection
SCIENTIFIC NOTE REGARDING BACILLUS STRAINS ANTAGONISTIC TO BOTRYTIS CINEREA GREY MOULD
Authors: Sergiu Fendrihan
Abstract: Maximum Grey mold, Botrytis sp. is a very well known pathogenic fungi ubiqvist and polyphage with impact on production of cultivated plants and in special in grapes production. The control requires costly treatment with chemicals, having only temporary results. The new tendency is to use as much as possible, ecological methods of control, including use of antagonists. Our preliminary tests with some Bacillus strain demonstrate the antagonist activity against the grey mould. The strains used also demonstrate their antagonism in the case of other pathogenic fungi.
Key words: Botrytis, Bacillus, biological control, antagonism
NATURAL OUTBREAK OF AN ENTOMOPHTHORALEAN FUNGUS, PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS ON MACROSIPHUM SP.
Authors:Mihaela Monica Dinu*, Ana-Cristina Fătu, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: Fungi belonging to order Entomophthorales (Zygomycota, Zygomycetes) form a group in which most of the species are entomopathogenic. Up to now it was found that 33 species grouped in three families and nine genera may limit aphid populations. Entomophthoralean fungi are considered important pathogens to aphids in nature. During 2014 summer, a natural outbreak caused by Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudiere et Hennebert) Humber in a population of Macrosiphum sp. (Aphididae) has been identified in a culture of roses in Northern Bucharest. Although it is cosmopolitan, the authors haven’t found scientific reports with reference to this species in Romania.
Key words: Pandora neoaphidis, Macrosiphum sp., Entomophthorales
CONFIRMATION OF THE PRESENCE OF THE SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG, NEZARA VIRIDULA (LINNAEUS, 1758) (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE), IN ROMANIA SCIENTIFIC NOTE
Authors:Daniel Kazimir Kurzeluk, Ana-Cristina Fătu, Mihaela Monica Dinu
Abstract: Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a plant-feeding stink bug, possibly originated in the Ethiopian region and subsequently spread by anthropochory. Due to the wide range of optimal ecological values and also to its polyphagy, the southern green stink bug adapted to all climates. Currently, it is spread in all the terrestrial zoogeographical regions, except arctic ones (New Zealand region considered as distinct). N. viridula has already been reported in our country, in Banat region, and this paper confirm their presence also in Muntenia.
Key words: Nezara viridula, Romania, distribution
FIRST RECORD OF THE SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA DROSOPHILA SUZUKII (DIPTERA: DROSOPHILIDAE) IN ROMANIA
Authors: Constantina Chireceanu*, Andrei Chiriloaie, Andrei Teodoru
Abstract: The paper presents the results on the first identification of the spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila
suzukii (Matsumura 1931) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Romania. In September 2013, seven adults were captured
in a Tephri trap (used for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata) placed on wild blackberry (Rubus
caesius L.) bushes in a site from the Northern part of Bucharest city (Southern Romania). In 2014, using bottle
traps baited with red grape wine, the presence of D. suzukii was reported in different ecological habitats, again
on wild blackberry fields as well as in gardens in urban, suburban and rural locations from Bucharest, Ilfov and
Giurgiu Counties (Southern Romania). Accordingly, we managed to perform the population dynamics of adults
captured in red wine bottle traps on R. caesius under weather climatic conditions of Bucharest area. The D.
suzukii flight activity took three months, i.e. from September to November. Our investigations confirmed that the
wild blackberry (R. caesius) and pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) fruits were harmed by D. suzukii, for which
they were hosts.
Key words: invasive species, population dynamics, Rubus caesius, spotted wing Drosophila
First record of Drosophila suzukii in Romania
RESEARCH ON PHYTOSANITARY PROTECTION OF COWPEA
CROP UNDER PSAMOSOILS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA
Abstract: Researches were performed during 2012-2014 , under psamosoils in southern Oltenia and had pursued
the prevention and combating of pest attack produced by agents from the cowpea culture . The results obtained
reveals very good efficacy of the product Topsin 500 SC at a concentration of 0.07% in combating Virus cowpea
aphid borne (G = 2%) and of the product Shavit F72 WP at a concentration of 0.2%, in combating Pseudomonas
syringae pv pathogens. Vignae (Ga = 15.3%) and Uromyces appendiculatus (Ga = 17.3%). Treatment with
Calypso EC 480 in a dose of 80 ml / ha, has recorded the lowest frequency of pest attack Aphis fabae (F =
16.6%) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (F = 19.1%). Performing of two phytosanitary treatment at cowpea with
Topsin 500 SC in a concentration of 0.07% + Calypso EC 480 at a dose of 80 ml / ha, in phases 3-4 true leaves
and flowering plant, has led obtaining the best production results (2750.7 kg / ha).
Keywords: pathogens, pests, treatment, production
ASSESSING THE DAMAGE CAUSED BY APHIDS AT GRAIN
SORGHUM CROP UNDER PSAMOSOILS IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA
Authors: Iulian Drăghici*, Reta Drăghici
Abstract: The research was conducted during 2012-2014 to the culture grain sorghum, located under
psamosoils, in southern Oltenia to assessing the implications of the attack of aphids (Schizaphis graminum
Rond.) in physiology and plant productivity. Have been tested three insecticides with systemic and contact effect
compared to untreated control, on a background of optimal application of other treatments to combat pathogens
and weeds. The results obtained highlight the very good efficacy by Calypso 480 EC at a dose of 80 ml/ha,
reducing by 81% the attack frequency of aphids, compared to the untreated control, where there was a 40.6%
frequency. The attack frequency produced by aphids was positively correlated with plant transpiration rate (r =
0.949) and negatively with leaf chlorophyll content (r = - 0.963*). Performing two treatments during the growing
season with this systems product, in phases 4-5 and 6-8 leaves of the sorghum plant, prompted a maximum rate
of photosynthesis at 15 o'clock and an increase in grain yield with 1905.7 kg/ha, very significantly compared to
the untreated variant.
Keywords: attack frequency, pests, physiology, production