ASPECTS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN WEEDS AND CROPS IN CONSERVATIVE AGRICULTURE
Authors:Marga Grǎdilǎ*, Ene Iulian, Vasile Jinga
Abstract:In agricultural rotation specific to agroforestry exploitations and Natura 2000 areas the weeds are considered ecologically as producers in agroecosystems. It is necessary to clarify what prevails, damage made by weeds that intercepts water and nutrients or service that it offer as producers of primary energy and what control methods are environmentally acceptable. The paper presents data on the interaction between weeds and crops in agricultural cropping adjacent to natural rezervation Comana, Giurgiu county.
Key words: agrocoenoses, crops, crop rotations, relationships competition;
EFFECTS OF THREE PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS ON TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE, TETRANYCHUS URTICAE (ACARI:ETRANYCHIDAE)
Authors: Simin Beynaghi,1 Katayoon Kheradmand 2*, Shahriar Asgari2, Aziz Sheykhi Garjan3
Abstract: Effects of essential oils derived from Cuminum cyminum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Mentha spicata were determined on Tetranychus urticae adults, at 25±10C, 65±5%RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation were characterized by means of GC and GC-MS. Bioassays were performed by filter paper diffusion without allowing direct contact. Cumin, clove and spearmint oils contained α- Pinene (29.1%), eugenol (78.5%) and carvone (59.4%), respectively, as the major compounds. The lowest LC50 value was recorded for cumin oil (3.74 μl/L air) followed by clove (6.13 μl/L air) and spearmint (7.53 μl/L air). The efficiency of the fumigant activity was increased with concentration for the all studied oil types. According to repellency tests, by increasing concentration of oils, the repellency effects were increased. The most potent repellency effect was recorded for clove, followed by spearmint and cumin oils. Three extracted essential oils seem to be suitable sources of active vapors that can be used as alternatives for chemical pesticides to control of this pest.
Keywords: Tetranychus urticae, essential oil, toxicity, repellency.
BIODIVERSITY OF INSECT POPULATIONS FROM APOIDEA SUPERFAMILY IN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS
Author: Traian Manole*
Abstract:In the present study the numerical density and biodiversity of species of pollinating insects from superfamily Apoidea were evaluated in the three selected representative types of ecosystems in the two research areas: South Muntenia and South East region.These species are particularly useful in their work like pollinators of plants crops, thus being services furnishing species and resources for integrated agricultural management.Apoidea density of individuals was estimated using the method of linear transects in strips and was expressed by the number of individuals/ha and diversity was assessed using Shannon-Wienner index (diversity index H').The study identified a total (on the whole research area) of 106 species taxonomically classified into 7 families: Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Melittidae, Megachilidae, Anthophoridae and Apidae.In the first area of research, South Muntenia three ecosystem types has selected: semi-natural (oak forest), alfalfa and sunflower and in the South East region the study was conducted in two types of agricultural ecosystems: alfalfa and sunflower. In the semi-natural ecosystem type 106 species were identified. The evaluation of density revealed the dominant species: Andrena flavipes Panz., A. subopaca Nyl., Eucera tuberculata F. and Halictus maculatus Smith. Diversity index had a high value (2.70) the best represented species being of the families Halictidae, Andrenidae, Anthophoridae and Megachilidae. In the agricultural ecosystem of alfalfa, 77 species have been identified, the dominant being Bombus lucorum L., Apis mellifera L., Andrena gelriae Vecht and Melitta leporina Panz.Diversity index was H' = 2.33 and families best represented were: Halictidae, Andrenidae and Anthophoridae. In the sunflower ecosystem 70 species were identified from which Apis mellifera L. Lasioglossum pauxillum Schr., Nomada ruficornis L., and Anthophora crinipes Smith, were dominant.Index H' value was 1.90 and species richness was highest for families: Halictidae, Andrenidae, Anthophoridae, Megachilidae and Apidae.In the South East Region, in the first type of agricultural ecosystem (alfalfa) 88 species were identified of which were dominant: Bombus pratorum L., Rophites hartmanni Friese, Bombus terrestris L., Apis mellifera L., Andrena gelriae and A. flavipes Panz.Diversity index (H'=2.33) with the biggest value was observed in most species of the families: Halictidae, Andrenidae, Megachilidae, Anthophoridae and Apidae.In the sunflower ecosystem a total of 70 species was identified from which the dominant populations were: Apis mellifera L., Lasioglossum politum Schenk., Bombus pratorum L., Anthophora acervorum L., L. pauxillum Schrank., Nomada ruficornis L. and Andrena minutula Kirby.Highest diversity (H'=1.90) characterized the species of the families: Halictidae, Andrenidae, Anthophoridae, Megachilidae and Apidae.
Key words: ecology conservation, agrosystems, wild pollinators
BACTERIAL BIOPRODUCTS USED TO CONTROL PHYTOPATHOGENIC SOIL FUNGI COMMON IN FOREST NURSERIES
Authors: Sorina Dinu*, Oana Alina Sicuia, Florica Constantinescu
Abstract: The aim of this work was to achieve some bioproducts of forest interest by formulating bacterial strains with high biotechnological potential. We also analysed the bioproducts activity in vitro and in planta against frequently soil phytopathogenic fungi. Two bioproducts, based on Bacillus subtilis Bce2 and Bacillus sp. 83.2s strains, were formulated and tested in laboratory and solarium conditions. The biological activity of our bioproducts was tested on the following fungal phytopathogens: Fusarium oxysporum ZUM 2407, Rhizoctonia solani DSM 63002, Pythium ultimum, Pythium debaryanum DSM 62946 and an indigenous strain of Fusarium solani, isolated from soil planted with spruce seedling (Picea abies L., H. Karst.), in Păpăuţi nursery, Covasna county. In vitro experiments demonstrated that, after formulation, the bioproducts maintained a good antagonistic activity against tested fungal phytopathogens, mainly on Fusarium species. The bacterial products applied as soil treatment in naturally infected solarium with edaphic phytopathogenic fungi have led to limiting the attack on spruce seedling.
Key words: bacterial bioproducts, biological activity, edaphic phytopathogenic fungi, spruce seedlings
MICROFLORA ASOCIATED TO RHIZOSPHERE AND RHIZOPLANE OF GRAPEVINES IN SOME ROMANIAN WINE-GROWING AREAS
Authors:Ana-Cristina Fătu, Mihaela Monica Dinu, Maria Oprea, Ana-Maria Andrei*
Abstract: In this paper is presented a study on microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of grapevines located in Arad County (Miniș wine-growing areas) and Prahova County (Valea Călugărească wine-growing areas). Given that these areas were chosen for the experimental application of organic fertilizer microbiologically enriched, the purpose of this work was to identify the natural occurrence of microorganisms that inhabit the grapevine rhizosphere and rhizoplane. The micromycetes isolated from the rhizosphere were mostly saprophytic; some of them have antagonistic role and 7% of rhizoplane are pathogenic fungal microorganisms. The rhizosphere is also colonized by bacteria, actinomycetes and nematodes.
Key words: microflora, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, grapevine
APPLICATION OF DETTERENT COMPOUND FOR CONTROL OF
OLIVE FRUIT FLIES BACTROCERA OLEAE GMELIN. (DIPTERA:
Authors: Mohammad Reza Abbasi Mozhdehi, Ali Akbar Kayhanian
Abstract: Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) is the key constraint against olive production in Iran and many other countries. In Iran the several methods for control of olive fruit fly are applied, such as yellow sticky traps alone and with sexual pheromones, olive traps and McPhail traps that contain protein hydrolysate. In this experiment, conducted in Roudbar olive research station in north of Iran in 2010, we applied kaolin powder as one of the methods for control and decrease of damage of olive fruit fly. We applied 3 different treatments concentrations containing 5, 3 and 1.5% of kaolin and water as control. Solutions were sprayed after monitoring with pheromone traps and protein traps. In first stage, after pit hardening of fruits, kaolin was sprayed on trees which coincided with in the beginning of summer. The second and third stage has been done in the end of summer and in the beginning of autumn when we observed maximum sexual activity. Results showed significant difference between treatment concentrations 5% and 3% with 1.5% and control (p<0.05). The average number of attacks (total infestation) per olive tree was 3.84± 0.28, 6.96 ± 0.42, 10.1 ± 0.18 and 18.78 ± 0.34 for treatments of 5, 3 and 1.5% concentrations and water. Due to the low solubility of this material in water, concentration of 5% has been recommended for spraying on trees. Application of kaolin powder was very useful to control of olive fruit fly and will be one of the methods in IPM.
Key words: olive fruit fly, antioviposition, kaolin
PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE ARTHROPOD BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED WITH SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas) CROPS UNDER SANDY SOILS CONDITIONS FROM SOUTHERN ROMANIA
Authors: Iamandei Maria*1, Draghici Reta2, Diaconu Aurelia2 , Drăghici I.2, Dima Milica2, Cho Eun-Gi3
Abstract: In 2013, the Research - Development Centre for Field Crops on Sandy Soils, Dăbuleni have initiated a study about the behavior of some Korean sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars, under specific climatic and pedological conditions, in order to be subsequently introduced in culture in Romania. One of the most important technological factors on which depends the quantity and quality of production is represented by the protection against various pests. This paper brings original data on the biodiversity of arthropod species associated with sweet potato crop variety Pumpkin, under irrigated sandy soils in two variants: with and without chemical treatments. Fifty-one species or genera of arthropods observed on sweet potato or collected in sweep net and pitfall traps in experimental plots were identified during 2013 season of vegetation and listed according to trophic category and the systematic group they belong to.
Key words: arthropod biodiversity, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, sandy soils.
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES ON
THE MORTALITY OF FIVE STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS
Authors: Reza Sadeghi and Arsalan Jamshidnia
Abstract: A study to determine the effect of nitrogen mixed with carbon dioxide on controlling stored-grain insects was conducted in the storehouse. Adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Oryzaeohilus surinamensis (L.) and 3th larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) were exposed the mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. After exposure periods of 24 h, the insects were transferred to clean jars containing food and held at 27±2ºC and 65 ±5% r. h. Experiments were performed in different depths (30, 40, 50 and 100 cm) and nutrition materials (rice, wheat and date), in penetration tests. In penetration tests, treatment with high-pressure nitrogen and carbon dioxide under different depth and foodstuff may result in different rates of mortality. The mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the interaction between depth and diet (depth ×diet) are not significant for the S. oryzae, T. castaneum, R. dominica and P. interpunctella but for O. surinamensis is significant. The influence of nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide in the date is more than rice and wheat. The mixture of nitrogen with carbon dioxide can be as suitable fumigant for decreasing phosphine under ambient storage conditions in penetration fumigation.
Key words: carbon dioxide, foodstuff, fumigant, nitrogen.
PRELIMINARY RESEARCH REGARDING STORED WHEAT GRAINS CONTAMINATION LEVEL
Authors:Roxana Dudoiu1,2*, Fătu Viorel1, Carmen Lupu1, Stelica Cristea2, Daria Popa1
Abstract: The grain losses recorded during storage period on worldwide scale according to FAO estimations are between 5-10% of total production. In developing countries, due to reduced possibilities of implementing appropriate technologies, the reported damages during storage period may increase up to 30%. In 2014, the wheat grains which are to be stored on an indefinite period of time is affected by the presence of various pests specific to warehouse ecosystem. The paper work presents a study regarding the evolution /development of specific warehouse micromycetes during the first months of storage. Immediately after being deposited, it has been identified the specific micoflora for this period, respectively species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aurobasidium, Cephalosporium and Fusarium genera. Crop safety and security can be achieved by maintaining climatic factors in stored spaces, thus limiting the populations’ level of contaminating microorganisms.
Key words: stored wheat, phytopathogen fungi, mycotoxin production.
IN VITRO INTERACTION BETWEEN TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM ISOLATE AND OTHER PATHOGENIC FUNGI ON CORN
Abstract: Trichoderma species are effective agents in biocontrol strategies and identifying their useful isolates for further studies seems to be helpful. The purpose of this study was to assess the in-vitro using dual-culture technique biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum isolate Tdal12 against other important pathogens of corn (F. oxysporum, F. graminearum, A. flavus). These antagonistic interactions influence the incidence and severity of the disease caused by the pathogens. Evaluations were conducted in RDIPP, Phytosanitary Risk Laboratory during 2013.
Keywords: in-vitro, Trichoderma asperellum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum, Aspergillus flavus
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL RESOURCES FOR A SUSTAINABLE GREEN PEACH APHID CONTROL IN GREENHOUSES – A REVIEW
Authors:Dinu Mihaela Monica*1,3, Fătu Ana-Cristina1, Andrei Ana-Maria1, Chireceanu Constantina1, Dobrin Ionela2, Puia Carmen3
Abstract: For a great period of time, in crops where natural enemies for pests were introduced, aphids couldn’t be fought against efficiently with the help of selective pesticides that had less harmful effect of useful fauna. With the development of a resistance to such pesticides, new control methods were needed and the use of entomophagous agents and entomopathogenic microorganisms came as an obvious solution. The use of biological control methods needs a deep knowledge of the biology for the species we work with as well as an understanding of the interactions in the agroecosystems created through agricultural practices. The results of using these methods for pest control can be satisfying, but 100% efficiency is rarely obtained. Still, the balance maintained between species, by an efficient manipulation of the environment, is possible and the understanding of this ecosystem can bring us closer to a healthier agriculture and more careful to the impact it has on environment. In this review paper, we will give an overall introduction to biological control resources for dealing with green peach aphids in greenhouses.
Key words: biological control, aphids, Myzus persicae, greenhouses
COMBINED EFFECTS OF BOTANICALS ON MYCELIAL GROWTH OF
PATHOGENIC FUNGI OF MAIZE - ZEA MAYS L.
Authors: Abiala Moses Akindele, Oyelude Janet Omoyemi, Odebode Adegboyega Chris., Osaiyuwu Osamede Henry, Akanmu Akinlolu Olalekan
Abstract: Several botanical extracts have been evaluated singly on many pathogenic fungi causing diseases of maize (Zea mays L.), but their combined effect is yet to be evaluated. This study investigates the combined effect (in vitro) of Rice Husk Extract (RHE), Wood Extract (WE) and Bamboo Extract (BE) at different levels of concentration (0.0,0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) on Fusarium oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. solani, F. verticillioides, Macrophomina phaseolina, Curvularia lunata, Dreschlera sp. and Bipolaris maydis. The treatment combinations (RHE x BE, RHE x WE, BE xWE and RHE x BE x WE) were prepared in a completely randomized design. Combination of RHE x BE x WE completely inhibited the mycelial growth of all the fungal pathogens at 1.5% concentration level compared to 0.5 and 1.0%. Similarly, combination of RHE x WE completely inhibited the mycelial growth of F. equiseti, F. verticilloides, M. phaseolina, Dreschlera sp. and B. maydis. Combined effect of RHE x BE and that of BE x WE showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in mycelial growth of the fungal pathogens. Thus, these botanical extracts at 1.5% concentration level could be useful in the control and management of maize diseases on large scale farming.
Keywords: Maize; Extracts; Pathogenic fungi; Concentration; Botanicals
EFFICACY OF TWO COMPATIBLE MIXTURES OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS AGAINST MAIN MAIZE PESTS
Authors:Daria- Gabriela Popa1, Cristina Fătu1, Oana Sicuia1, Alexandra Buburuz2, Sorina Dinu1, Mihaela Dinu1, Roxana Dudoiu1, Florica Constantinescu1, Ana-Maria Andrei1, Carmen Mincea1
Abstract : The mixtures of insecticides and fungicides with microbiological experimental products were prepared in RDIPP laboratories based on specific procedures and tested in field conditions, in 2013, at Agricultural Research - Development Station Secuieni. The mixtures of chemicals and microbiological products used in maize seed treatment provided a better protection for plants against wire worms (Agriotes sp.), maize weevil (Tanymecus dilaticollis) and some soil and seed pathogens. The microbiological products applied in seed treatment alone did not provide adequate and reliable protection for the plants against pests and pathogens identified in culture.
Good protection provided by the experimental mixtures in seed treatment has positively influenced on maize yield
Key words: compatible mixtures, microbiological products , seed treatment, integrated pest management
INHIBITION OF DIGESTIVE Α-AMYLASE FROM BACTEROCERA OLEAE GMELING (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) BY THE PROTEINACEOUS EXTRACTS OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. AND VIGNA UNGUICULATA L.
Authors: Sahar Delkash-Roudsari 1, Arash Zibaee1*, Mohammad Reza Abbci-Mozhdehi1, Zargham Bighma3
Abstract: In the current research, effects of the two proteinaceous inhibitors were studied on digestive α-amylase of Bacterocera oleae Gmelin, a severely economic pest of olive fruits around the world. The two proteinaceous inhibitors were extracted from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (white bean) and Vigna unguiculata L. (cowpea) using 20, 40, 60 and 80% concentrations of ammonium sulfate precipitations. The highest amylolytic inhibitions were obtained in the samples extracted by 80 and 60% concentrations of ammonium sulfate for white bean and cowpea, respectively. IC50 values of white bean and cowpea were calculated 0.9 and 0.201 mg/ml, respectively. The highest inhibitions were observed at temperature of 250C and pH of 5 for both inhibitors. Meanwhile, Kinetic studies in control and treated enzymes revealed lower Vmax and higher Km indicating mixed inhibition. Uunderstanding of enzymatic reactions in media containing inhibitors could be useful to have a better viewpoint in control of agricultural pests via plant breeding programs.
Keywords: Bacterocera oleae, α-amylase inhibitor, white bean, cowpea
SUSCEPTIBILITY EVALUATION OF APPLE LEAVES AGAINST VENTURIA INAEQUATIS INFECTION
Authors: Viorel Fătu 1,2*, Roxana Dudoiu1,2, Carmen Lupu1
Abstract: Plants grown in the field are subjected to variable environmental conditions during their life cycle. When environmental conditions become extreme, cellular metabolism is diverted from its normal course in the direction of short-term negative effects attenuation. Intense solar radiation associated with high temperatures determines acceleration of water transport in the plant in order to be evaporated. The purpose of this study is to test the susceptibility of apple leaves against Venturia inaequalis infection according to the canopy sun exposure. In July 2012, 20 apple trees (25 years age) were selected from which were randomly collected 200 leaves on the north side of the canopy and 200 on the south. Degree of attack using Assess 2.0 program, the amount of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b using the CCM-200 plus device and ash content using a calciner, were determined. The degree of leaves infection with V. inaequalis was 4.16% for southern exposition and 1.21% for the northern exposition. The total amount of chlorophyll was 3.25 mg/g FM (fresh matter) for the leaves with southern exposition and 4.51 mg/g FM for those with northern exposition. After calcination of 5 grams of leaves at 550 °C, the percentage of ash was 4.06% for the leaves with northern exposition and 4.56% for the leaves with southern exposition. The results showed a strong correlation between the attack degree of V. inaequalis and intensive solar radiation absorbed by leaves.
Key words: Venturia susceptibility, solar radiation, chlorophyll
ISOLATION OF SOME ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIAL STRAINS
FROM POTATO TUBERS
Author: Sergiu Fendrihan
Abstract: Endophytic bacteria and fungi occur in different wild and cultivated plants, being a wide distributed phenomenon. The potato tubers contain in their vascular and pulp areas bacteria that can be used for beneficial purposes including antagonists of pathogenic bacterial and fungi strains. The work presents some preliminary results of this isolation, with the purpose to identify strains of interest for agriculture.
Key words: potato tubers, endophyte bacteria
OPTIMISATION OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA FOR CONTROL OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI
Author: Sergiu Fendrihan
Abstract: The phytopathogenic fungi attacking the seedlings of forest trees, in forest nurseries produced important damages of transplantation and reforrestation plant material. One of the most modern and important methods is to use alternative environmental friendly antagonistic bacteria and fungi for the pathogens. The mass growing of antagonists means to find new optimized method of growing including new type of growth culture media assuring a high yield of biomass and conserve the antagonistic properties of the strains. In the laboratory of bacteriology from RDIPP, were designed and tested improved culture media in order to select the most appropriate ones from scientific and economic point of view for this biotechnological process, in order to obtain a better biomass yield.
Key words: forest nurseries, biomass production antagonistic bacteria, phytopathogens, culture media