EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Authors: Marga Grădilă*, Elena Hera, Oana Sicuia, Mihaela Monica Dinu, Cristina Fatu, Daria Gabriela Vălimăreanu
Abstract: For the selection of bacterial and fungal strains of biotechnological interest on biological compatibility criteria and for inclusion in integrated control schemes of diseases and pests frequently in vegetable crops protected was evaluated the acute toxicity of five species of entomopathogenic fungi at Daphnia magna and Eisenia foetida, in GLP conditions designed in the eco-toxicological facility of RDIPP Bucharest. Were tested: Verticillium lecanii,Metarhizium anisopliae,Beauveria brongniartii, Beauveria bassiana and Isaria farinosa. The entomopathogenic fungi tested to maximum use concentrations showed no acute effects on Daphnids and earthworms. There were no recorded immobilizations and abnormal reactions and was found that the fungus Verticillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria farinosa had a stimulating action on the Daphnia magna reproduction.
Key words: acute toxicity, biological system, entomopathogenic fungi, Daphnia magna,Eisenia foetida.
STUDY ON IDENTIFICATION AND IMPLICATION OF PEST AGENTS ON PHYSIOLOGY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SOME MAIZE HYBRIDS GROWN ON SANDY SOILS
Authors: Reta Drăghici, Iulian Drăghici, Diaconu Aurelia, Mihaela Croitoru, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: The sandy soil agroecosystems constitutes an unfavorable environment for the natural enemies of pest agents, because of the high degree of disequilibrium as a result of perturbations and anthropogenic interventions (Emilia Baniţă et al., 2002, Cojocaru Doina et al., 1996, P. Nampala et al., 1999). The use of hybrids and varieties of resistant plants represents a method ideal and full ecological, creating a natural barrier against the pathogens and pests aggression, without negative consequences on the environment. In this sense, research conducted during 2008-2010, on plant protection in some genotypes of maize grown on sandy soils, showed an statistically correlations between microclimate, biological material and pesting agent, for the purposes the implication of attack produced by pathogens on the development of plant physiological processes and the production results. The results obtained at maize, showed a positive correlations between plant perspiration process and degree / frequency attack produced by Fusarium moniliforme (r = 0.948 *), by Ustilago maydis (r = 0.996 *) and by Ostrinia nubilalis (r = 0.898 **). The Olimpius and Olt maize hybrids they had the best stability of production in the area of sandy soils climatic conditions (standard deviation = 366.8-403.1 kg/ha).
Keywords: pathogen, attack, plant, transpiration, photosynthesis, yield
CHRONIC ASPECTS OF IMIDACLOPRID ON THE FISHES FROM CYPRINIDAE FAMILY
Author: Marga Grădilă
Abstract:This paper presents the results of a short-term chronic toxicity test at saplings carp (Cyprinus carpio), saplings crucian (Carassius auratus) and Chinese carp saplings (Ctenopharyngodon idella) bred a period of 35 days in solutions sublethal of imidacloprid. The purpose of these research was to determine the maximum concentration of imidacloprid for cyprinidae family and assess the safety concentration of this pesticide. The test results showed that Cyprinus carpio is most sensitive to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid. Maximum permissible value of imidacloprid in water for Cyprinus carpio represent the safety concentration that can protect all aquatic organisms in the ecosystem studied.
Key words: eco-toxicology, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, ,,Safety concentration”
CONTROL OF CODLING MOTH (CYDIA POMONELLA L.) USING PHEROMONE TRAPS AND NEW INSECTICIDES IN CONDITION OF VOINEŞTI FRUIT – GROWING AREA
Author: Cecilia Bolbose
Abstract: Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) remains to be o very important pest in most apple orchards. This paper presents the results performed between 2010 – 2011 with home new insecticides and untreated check.The results were interpreted comparatively for biological products, chemical insecticides and untreated check. The main results obtained were the following:
- with two treatments/each generation, KASIO SORBIE 5WG conc. 0.01% and VOLIAM TARGO SC63 conc. 0.073% had the maximal efficacy in controlling all the stages of Cydia pomonella L.;
- the insecticide KARATE ZEON conc. 0.015% was very effective in controlling the pest;
- they are remarked the importance of the pheromone traps in establishing the spreading area of the pests, the appreciation of the opportunity of treatments applying according to population level and stablishing the optimal time for treatment warning.
Key words: Carpocapsa pomonella, pheromone, insecticides, biological efficacy
BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SOME PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI USED AS MODEL IN THE PRECISION MANAGEMENT OF SUGAR BEET DISEASES IN ROMANIA
Authors: Maria Iamandei, Maria Oprea, Mihaela Cioloca
Abstract: The biological parameters of Cercospora beticola and Ramularia beticola fungi were studied at R.D.I.P.P. Bucharest Mycology laboratory, using a modified Tuite method. It was established how the fungi colonies’ development were influenced by: abiotic factors (temperature, relative humidity), the pH values of the substrate on which they grow, the duration of the incubation period, the energetic and plastic sources. Knowing these elements a prognosis model can be established related to the attack of the two fungi in field conditions, and used in the precision management of the sugar beet crop’s diseases.
Key words: Cercospora beticola, Ramularia beticola, sugar beet, precision management
PRELIMINARY STUDIES REGARDING INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH AGAINST THE RICE WEEVIL, Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), ON STORED WHEAT
Authors: Andrei Chiriloaie, Maria Ciobanu, Sonica Drosu
Abstract: Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the impact of Romanian diatomaceous earth (DE) samples with their insecticidal properties to control one of the most important pest in stored grain, rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. It was tested the efficacy of two local DE deposits, Pătârlagele (Buzău), Adamclisi (Constanța) respectively, compared with commercial formulations SilicoSec and PyriSec. The experiments were carried out at temperature of 25°C and relative humidity (RH) levels 60±5%. Mortality of pest was counted at 7, 14 and 21 days after exposure (DAT) at the following DE dose rates: 100, 300, 500 and 900 ppm. The mortality of adults normally increased with increasing dose rates and DAT. With almost 100 % mortality even at 300 ppm dose the most effective were the comercial products PirySec and SilicoSec. Romanian DEs were more effective at dose rate 900 ppm, but also registred satisfactory mortality at dose 500 ppm (85-94%). Taking into account the results achieved, we can considere it a good possibility to obtain a Romanian mineral insecticide for stored products protection against pests.
Key words: Sitophilus oryzae, diatomaceous earth, stored wheat
ALERT SYSTEMS IN DECISION SUPPORT SISTEMS FOR SUGAR BEET AND POTATO CROP PEST MANAGEMENT
Authors: Maria Iamandei, Gheorghe Ciubuc
Abstract: The Alert System for Decision Support Systems is based on the need of farmers to be informed and warned using a simple e-mail, in automate manner and real time, about the plant protection problems that appears on agriculture lands and solutions to solve them. These recommendations are triggered by the alerts that can be launched based on two types of rules: rules created using only meteorological data and rules defined by data mining technologies and based on a complex of various data. In this paper we show how to define and use the simplest type of alerts - meteorological alert. In order to make the best recommendations as information or warnings, we used previous developed diseases infection models and to get a real observations about meteorological data we used an innovative automate mechanism to collect values measured by the portable meteorological station directly on the farmer crops.
Key words: Alert systems, Decision Support Systems, Pest management
PRELIMINARY STUDY ON EFFICACY OF BEAUVERIA BRONGNIARTII BIOINSECTICIDES AGAINST COMMON COCKCHAFER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
Authors: Ana-Cristina Fatu , Mihaela-Monica Dinu , Constantin Ciornei, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: Among the root pests, the beetles in the family Scarabeidae are now the major biotic stress in forest nurseries. In the last two decades common European cockchafer, Melolontha melolontha L., recorded mass propagation and produced significant damage in Romania. The stringent environmental, economic, and social standards for responsible forest management and FSC certification of many forests in Romania have imposed restriction in the chemical insecticides use. Considering these aspects, RDIPP was funded by the National Forest Administration RNP-ROMSILVA to develop obtaining and application technologies for M. melolontha biocontrol.This paper presents the preliminary results of Beauveria brongniartii bioinsecticides application against M. melolontha adults under field conditions.
Key words: Beauveria brongniartii, Melolontha melolontha, biocontrol
WEED CONTROL STRATEGIES OF RAPE CROPS IN CONSERVATIVE AGRICULTURE
Authors: Marga Grădilă, Ene Iulian, Vasile Jinga
Abstract: The paper presents data on weed control in agricultural cropping adjacent nature reservation Comana, Giurgiu. In this protected areas had been placed demonstration plots at cultures of rape in the conservative crop rotations. The aimed was to assess the risk posed by weeds in rape crops, weeds control and identification of the most effective techniques and alternative methods of control. The results showed that control integrate has the best chance of protecting the rape crops in conservative agriculture against to weed competition especially in the early stages of growth, as well as in reducing the degree of infestation for to obtain the adequate productions economically and environmentally.
Key words: weeds, conservative agriculture, integrated control, post-emergent herbicide
PHYTOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINATED SOILS
Authors: Ştefania Gheorghe, Gabriela Vasile, Vasile Iancu, Irina Lucaciu
Abstract: Soil is the principal component of the terestrial ecosystem on which is exercited the most of the industrial pollution. Even if soil have an increased biodegradation potential, the intensive antropogenic activities cause serious imbalances in biodiversity maintaining which ensure this process. Fate and bioavailability of contaminants in soil is often assessed through bioassays, biomonitoring and ecotoxicological testing of soil quality in order to identify negative processes. In this context, the aim of the study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of some soil samples contaminated with heavy metals (mining area Certejul de Sus, Hunedoara county) and with petroleum products (extraction area Poieni - Teleorman and deposit area Constanta). Soil toxicity was assessed using the microbiotest Phytotoxkit with Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba, where seeds germination and roots growth inhibition were set as endpoints. Soil samples contaminated with heavy metals (As, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Cr) showed inhibition of germination in the range of 0 to 16.66% (insignificant compared to control) and roots growth inhibition in the range of 0.34 to 31.58%, indicating a moderate toxicity. Soil sample contaminated with petroleum products showed a different toxicity due to different sampling sections. The soil sampling from the extraction area highlited a severe phytotoxicity on all plants (inhibition of germination in range of 45.5% - 90% and roots grouth inhibition in 49.63% - 92.62%), toxicity was caused by significant loading of petroleum products (> 2500 mg / kg d.m). The soil sample from Constanta deposit showed no phytotoxicity on mustard and cress plants, but a low effect was observed on roots growth in case of sorghum plants (9.27%). Our experiments emphased the utility of the use of phytotoxicity microbiotest which can provide relevant informations about soil toxicity necessary in environmental risk assessment. The method protocol is easily to understand and apply, economical regarding the space use, maintenance and obtaining relevant results in a short time and easier to interpret.
Key words: soil, phytotoxicity, heavy metals, petroleum products
Insecticidal potential assessment of entomopathogenic microorganisms against stored product insects
Authors: Mihaela Monica Dinu, Ana-Cristina Fătu, Andrei Chiriloaie, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: In this paper are presented the results of laboratory tests aimed to evaluate the virulence of some entomopathogenic fungi isolated from natural epizootic outbreaks, against specific stored products pests. Fungal material in doses ranging from 2 to 4 x 103 B. bassiana conidia/g was applied on the following growth media: (i) synthetic media Hydak, for Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), Galleria mellonella (L.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Tenebrio molitor (L.), (ii) grains, for Sitophilus granarius (L.), (iii) mix flour with cornmeal-milk powder, for Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Statistical analysis of the results was based on the mortality rates recorded at different periods and consisted in the quantification of biological activity (LD-50). Test insects, excepting T. castaneum beetle adult stage, showed high susceptibility to Beauveria bassiana. The results demonstrated the possibility to use the entopathogenic fungi belonging to the R.D.I.P.P. useful microorganisms collection in biological control of stored products insects.
Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, Tenebrio molitor, Plodia interpunctella, Galleria mellonella
THE IMPACT OF IMIDACLOPRIDE, DESIGNED FOR SEEDS TREATMENT TOWARDS THE JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA)
Authors: Carmen Mincea, Alexandra Pasareanu, Elena Hera, Daria Gabriela Valimareanu
Abstract: The imidaclopride known as an insecticide for seeds treatment, has an impact on the environment, and in order to avoid this risk factor it has to be established its toxicity towards birds. For this purpose, the present paper had as an objective to determine the avian dietary toxicity of imidacloprid on the Japanese quail – test bird for establishing the toxicity rate of plant protection products. The results of the experiment characterize the study product as being low toxic towards the Japanese quail.
Key words: imidacloprid, diet toxicity, Japanese quail
THE BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS, SOIL BIOLOGY AND MODERN AGRICULTURE
THE ORAL AND CONTACT ACUTE TOXICITY OF CYPERMETHRIN 100 G/L ON HONEYBEES
Authors: Elena Hera, Carmen Mincea, Alexandra Păsăreanu, Oana-Alina Sicuia,,Daria Gabriela Valimareanu
Abstract: The present study describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of Cypermethrin 100 g/L. This chemical product was tested on honeybees (Apis melifera) according to the GLP principles, using the C16 method for acute oral toxicity and C17 method for acute contact toxicity, both included in the Regulation no.440/2008. This study represents a thorough evaluation method for risk assessment of plant protection products on the environment. The oral and contact acute toxicity evaluation on honeybees of Cypermethrin 100 g/L product was made based on the values of LD50.Test results showed that the studied product has a LD50 of 0.0323µg/bee for acute oral toxicity according to the C16 testing method and a LD50 of 0.0224µg/bee for acute contact toxicity according to the C17 testing method.
Key words: honeybees, GLP, contact acut toxicity
DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS BY REDUCING CORN CONTAMINANTS ON PLANT DEBRIS
Authors: Liliana Aurora Ştefan*, Alexantru Paica, Cristian Iulian Ene
Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection, Bucharest
Abstract: Research designed to develop strategies for biocontrol and integrate beneficial microorganisms in crop protection systems of conservation agriculture.New methodologies for reducing the level of primary inoculum of toxigenic and pathogenic fungi which occurs in the soil and on plant debris, contributing to the optimization of corn cultivation technology. Plant debris has a significant role in the life cycle of micotoxins producing fungi of Aspergillus and Fusarium group. Biocontrol strategies make use of the natural phenomenon of microbial antagonism. Biological control by "competitive exclusion", using non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains as biocontrol agents (BCA) has been reported recently in the United States, and Australia, as being effective in controlling aflatoxin in corn (Patent Application Publication US 2012/0183507 A1).Natural stimulating of antagonists by cultural practices is an alternative biocontrol strategy, independent of the development and the recording on the market of a bioprodus. Many antagonists were selected from different geographical areas and are effective for biological control of toxigenic species of Aspergillus and Fusarium, but data on efficacy and economic feasibility of field bioproducts development by SMEs lacking.
Keywords: agricultural sustainability, beneficial microorganism, Trichoderma pseudokoningii Td85, T. harzianum Tdh Dp12
TOXIGENIC FUNGI OF ASPERGILLUS GENUS AND CORN CROP VULNERABILITY TO INFECTION PRODUCED BY THESE
Authors: Alexandru Paica*, Cristian Iulian Ene, Liliana Aurora Stefan
Abstract: Critical points of vulnerability in the system corn - toxigenic fungi of Aspergillus group are aspergillosis corn diseases. The toxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus survives between growing seasons in crop residue and in soil. Waste corn around storage bins can also be a source of spores. The toxigenic fungus is nearly always present in corn production areas, although the level of infestation can vary. Infection of silks by A. flavus represents the input mode for mycotoxin producing fungi, when there is a corn contamination risk with aflatoxin. Drought and high temperature during grain fill are by far the most common stress factors associated with preharvest aflatoxin contamination.
Risk factors for the system corn - toxigenic fungi of Aspergillus group are: the primary inoculum on plant debris and the contaminated soil; variability in virulence and fungal toxigenity; ability to develop resistance to fungicides; corn water stress caused by prolonged drought and adaptability to climate change. Warmer and semi-arid regions favor the occurrence of aspergillosis or yellow mould diseases and are a risk factors of corn crop in Romania. Research refers to a predictive model to identify critical points of vulnerability in corn - toxigenic fungi system of Aspergillus group and highlighting the aspergillosis incidence which depend on contamination level in the soil and on plant debris. Resistant hybrids and to optimize the mechanism of fungicides action against mycotoxins producing fungi, is a rational way to prevent and reduce the level of contamination with toxigenic fungi in soil and on plant debris.
Keywords: aspergillus disease; toxigenic-pathogenic fungi, aflatoxin
THE BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS, SOIL BIOLOGY AND MODERN AGRICULTURE
Authors: Sergiu Fendrihan
Abstract: The problems imposed by the modern agriculture and sustainable development stimulated extended research in order to identify new technological and biological instruments to improve plant health and crop amounts and uses of less chemicals for fertilization and treatment to control pests and diseases. The use of the beneficial soil bacteria and fungi in order to improve agricultural production is of major importance for near future agriculture. This paper shortly review this problems.
Key words: beneficial microorganisms, arbuscular micorrhiza, phosphate solubilization bacteria
THE BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS, SOIL BIOLOGY AND MODERN AGRICULTURE
THE PRESENCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.), (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN ROMANIA
Authors: Constantina Chireceanu, Maria Iamandei, Florin Stanica, Andrei Chiriloaie
Abstract: The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) was studied in Romania in 2013. Using the Tephri type traps, a survey of fruit flies was performed in cherry, apricot, peach and jujube orchards but also in private gardens and wild blackberry bushes in 17 locations in the fruit growing regions in the South, South-East and West parts of the country. The presence of C. capitata adults was confirmed in five locations, on jujube in orchards and in private garden (Bucharest and Moara Domneasca Ilfov County), on apricot in private garden (Agigea-Constanta County) and on wild blackberry bushes (Bucharest). The C. capitata population dynamic and symptoms of damage to Ziziphus jujube (Mill.) were recorded in the jujube orchard that belongs to the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. In Bucharest' climatic conditions, the adults' population developed during two month period, from September to October. The first adults were captured on 2nd September closely to ripening of the jujube fruits. The percentage of affected jujube fruits was under 10%.
Key words: Ceratitis capitata, Ziziphus jujube, population dynamics, Romania.
AGRICULTURE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM
Authors: Viorel Fatu, Carmen Lupu, Vasile Jinga
Abstract: To facilitate a decision in establishing a crop, data concerning climate, soil resources, crop suitability and major diseases and pests were collected and analyzed. This created a database in which all values were connected with geographical coordinates and converted into GIS layers in the WGS84 coordinate system. After the weather data for 1958-2006 time intervals and statistics data with average yields per hectare of agricultural crops were analyzed, was created a scenario forecast for the period 2012-2020. Forecast scenario consists of average monthly temperatures and rainfall plotted in the form of raster GIS with a resolution of about 50 km. Based on scenario forecast were created maps with available water for crops (2012-2020). Values of the amount of available water together with crops suitability are introduced into an equation that produces a result which represents minimum projected agricultural production per hectare in desired year and location. In order to access this information ICDPP developed an interactive application to display GIS layers in the form of maps and an agricultural production calculator hosted on the website http://www.prognozaagricola.ro/aplicatie/.
Key words: GIS, forecast
MICRO-ALGAE BASED PLANT BIOSTIMULANT AND ITS EFFECT ON WATER STRESSED TOMATO PLANTS
Authors: Florin Oancea, Sanda Velea, Viorel Fătu, Carmen Mincea, Lucia Ilie
Abstract: A cascade process was developed for the production of a micro-algae based plant biostimulant. This process is intended to assure a high recovery of the main components of plant biostimulant (phytohormones, betaines, oligosaccharides elicitors, micro-algal protein hydrolysates), without affecting yield of micro-algae lipids extraction. The main steps of the process are: micro-algae cell walls lysis by pressure homogenization and hydrolysis with mixture a lytic enzymes; separation of phytohormones, osmoprotectants, free amino acids and solubles carbohydrates by tangential ultrafiltration; extraction of lipids from ultrafiltration retentate; enzymatic hydrolysis of protein from defatted retentate; mixing protein hydrolisate with ultrafiltrate retentate, resulting the micro-algae based plant biostimulant. The composition of the resulted plant biostimulant dry matter is: 88.26% hydrolyzed algal protein, from which 5.63% is proline, 9.41% carbohydrates, 2.23 others compounds, including 0.023% total betaines and 0.012% cytokinins, kinetin activity equivalents. Micro-algae based biostimulant was tested on water stressed and non-water stressed tomato plants. In non-water stressed plants the biostimulant obtained from micro-algae determined a better development of root length (108.08% control), and an increased leaves number (120.31% control) and of leaves area (105.16% control), comparing to a commercial seaweed extract – 105.98% control, 106.25% control, and, respectively, 104.45%. On leaves number and leaves area the differences are statistically significant, micro-algae based bio-stimulant being more active. These stimulatory effects of both algae based biostimulants compensate the negative influence of water stress. On water stressed tomato plant height and root length decrease by almost 20% (from an average of 58.45 cm on control, well watered and not-treated with biostimulants, to 48.87 cm on water stressed tomato plant and not treated with plant biostimulants) and, respectively, by more than 25% (from 58.82 cm average on control plants, to 39.85 cm on water stressed tomatoes). Application of algae based biostimulant alleviated the effects of water stress on plants root development and reduced by almost 50% the negative influences on plants height. Average production of treated tomato plants (expressed as production per 30 days cycle of flowering and fructification) is similar for both tested macro- and micro- algae based plant biostimulants. Mechanisms of action of the main components of algae plant biostimulants are discussed and further solutions for optimization of micro-algae based biostimulant are envisaged.
Key words: plant biostimulant, micro-algae biomass, mixotrophic culture, water stressed tomatoes