INSECTICIDES BASED ON ROW MATERIAL OF VEGETAL ORIGIN – TOXICITY EFFECT ON MAMMALS
Authors: Alexandra Păsăreanu, Carmen Mincea, Elena Hera
Abstract: Melia azedarach extracts used as insecticide are relatively of recent date procedure, the azadiractinate biological action being discovered in 1993. This study presents some aspects of toxicological action of Melia azedarach vegetal extracts on different harmful organisms, such as Hyphantria cunea and Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In the assesment of the bioinsecticide toxicity, the main step is to establish the reverse or not changings(lack of modification)of skin and eye irritabiliy caused by the bioinsecticide contact. Based on the results obtained by bioinsecticide toxicological tests of Melia azedarachextracts we conclude that:
- (1) all three bioinsecticide of Melia extracts show to have low toxicity effect on Wistar white rat, LD50 is higher than 5000 mga.i./kg body weight and
- (2) all three show a very low irritable effect on skin and eye (0 - 1 on Draize et al. scale).
Key words: Melia azedarach, vegetal extracts
GRAPE DIEBACK IN ROMANIA INDUCED BY PATHOGENIC LIGNICOULUS FUNGI
Authors: Liliana Tomoiaga, Maria Oprea, Aurelia Podosu, Ion Voiculescu, Carmen Stoica, Viorel Florian
Abstract: Biological decline of grapevine is determined under the pedoclimate conditions prevailing in Romania by the lignicoulus fungi parasiting the trunk and branches: Eutypa lata, Phomopsis viticola, Stereum hirsutum, Cytospora vitis, Verticillium dahliae, Phoma uvicola, Diplodia viticola, Pestalozzia vitis, Sphaeropsis malorum and telluric fungus which found on drying roots Roesleria hypogea, Roesellinia necatrix. Micromyceta involved in grapevine decline can attack during the autumn-spring period, when grapevine are in dormancy and temperatures are low for a more prolonged period. Evolution of the progress of early drying of grapevine, as results of the pathogenic action of lignicoulus fungi is influenced by the age of plants, pruning system and cultivar behavior.
Key words: grapevine, biological decline, lignicoulus fungi
INSECTICIDE EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN EXTRACTS
Authors: Elena Hera, Carmen Mincea, Alexandra Pasareanu, S. Kumbakisaka, Mariana Pruna
Abstract: This paperpresents the insecticide and phyto-toxic effects of the two plant products: Aphigun a.i.10% and Lemiex a.i. 20%, based on the esthers and fat acids as biologic active substances, extracted from Soya.The observations carried out in the apple orchard of RDIPP Bucharest showed a very good insecticide effect on the 1-2 age larvae of Tetranychus urticae as well as on Aphis pomi adults. Under greenhouse conditions the bio-insecticide products showed no phyto-toxic effects on the plants.
Key words: plant products, efficacy and phytotoxicity
INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF WEED IN STONE FRUIT ORCHARD
Authors: Marga Gradila, Vasile Jinga, Marian Popescu
Abstract: Every year the stone orchards are increasingly infested with weeds, both concurrent for trees and difficult to control.The concept of integrated management weeds control is based on “threshold tolerance” which means the highest number of weeds, with no injury effect on the trees or economic yield loss. In the new conditions of a sustainable agriculture, the integrated management of weeds in the stone orchards needs to be performed combining harmonically the agrotechnical, biological and chemical methods together with control and organizational means.
This study tries to present some weeds control data and the observations were carried out in the apple orchard of RDIPP- Bucharest. To achieve the best results in weed controlling, and taking into consideration the compelling ecological demands for the environmental protection, we have carried out both agro-technical (weeding, scything, mulching) and chemical methods (herbicides based on glyophosphat). The results of these observations lead to the conclusion that both agro-technical and chemical methods assured a good weeds control, of 80%. On the scything plot, though the weeds control was not completely diminished, after the three consecutive scything, the weeds were kept at not harmful growth level, for the trees. The weeds are also unable to store nutrient reserves to survive over the winter. On the mulching plot, this method assured o very good weeds control and could be easily applied with low costs. Unless it showed a good weeds control, especially on the perennial ones, mulching layer showed also to have a fertilizing effect on the soil, contributing to the organic enrichment of the ground. As chemicals for the weeds control plot we have used herbicides based on gliyphosate, to protect the useful fauna and also because they showed to be easily degradable in soil and residual deposits free in fruits.
Key words: stone orchards, weeds, herbicide
STUDIES ON THE ATTRACT & KILL METHOD TO CONTROL THE LEPIDOPTEREAN PESTS IN ROMANIAN APPLE ORCHARDS AND VINEYARDS
Authors: Sonica Drosu, Georgeta Teodorescu, Maria Ciobanu, Mihaela Sumedrea, Silvia
Abstract: The use of the pheromones in plant protection is one of the ecological methods for monitoring pest control in order to maintain their populations in the agro ecosystem below thresholds. The Attract & Kill is a new method that enables us to directly control the pest. It consists of a combination between specific pheromone that attracts the males and the insecticide to kill them. The paper presents the results of the trials carried out during 2006 in different apple orchards and a vineyard with products (MESAJ CP and PRELUDIU LB) obtained by the Research Institute for Chemistry “Raluca Ripan” Cluj-Napoca. The product consists of a viscous formulation containing specific codling moth pheromone (E8, E10-dodecadienol) or vine moth pheromone (E-9-dodecenylacetate and E, Z-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate) and a pyrethroid. The formulation was applied by hand, twice in the season – first time just after noticing first moths in pheromones traps and the second one about 6 weeks later. Males contacting a drop die within a few hours. As a result, the reproduction is reduced and therefore, the level of population as well.The preliminary results on the trials showed a good efficacy. This strategy can compete with conventional spray applications and is therefore a good alternative for codling moth and grapevine moth control in integrated fruit and wine growing respectively.
Key words: pheromones, plant protection, orchards, vineyard
PHENOLOGY MODEL ON SUMMER FRUIT TORTRIX MOTH ADOXOPHYES RETICULANA HB. (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) AND PREDICTING EMERGENCE TIMING
Authors: Sonica Drosu, Cecilia Bulbose
Abstract: The summer fruit tortrix moth Adoxophyes reticulana is an important pest in some orchards in Romania, its damages increasing in the last years. In many cases the control treatments do not showed good results. That is the reason why to improve the warning system based on the model for the development of the pest with temperature sums is essential. To understand the mechanism of seasonal occurrence of this species, the population dynamics model that explicitly incorporates the temperature – dependent development is used. Knowledge of the phenology of the summer fruit tortrix moth Adoxophyes reticulana is likely to allow the prediction of the timing of appearance for each development stage, which can provide a well – timed control method. The model predictions were compared with observed captures in pheromone traps at the Research-Development Station for Fruit Tree Growing Voinesti. The results demonstrated that the timing of peak appearance of adult population varied among years.
Key words: orchard, Adoxophyes reticulana, prediction, pheromon traps
MOTHS POPULATION MONITORING OF STORED PRODUCTS BY SEX PHEROMONE TRAPS
Authors: Maria Ciobanu, Ion Oprean
Abstract: Have been tested two variants of the TDA synthetic sex pheromone, produced by Chemistry Research Institute „Raluca Ripan”, Cluj-Napoca, for the monitoring of pest lepidoptera population in stored produce. The experiments have been carried out in a grain stored produce naturally infested with seeds moth Plodia interpunctella where both pheromonal variants P-1 and P-2, showed a good efficacy in males capture. It was recorded a greater capture during July-August, that showed the development of first generation adulthood; the second flight maximum, recorded at the end of the experimental period (September) is supposed to show the beginning of the second generation, but in a reduced number caused by the lower store temperature. In the same time in a flour-mill silo were monitoring the population of Ephestia kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella, with good efficacy showed by the males captures from both species. On the basis of these observations it can be concluded that the use of synthetic sex pheromones traps can be a rapid, efficacy and no pollutant method for the pest control.
Key words: sex pheromone traps, stored products
IMPROVING THE PREDICTION OF ADULT CHERRY FRUIT FLY (RHAGOLETIS CERASI L.) EMERGENCE IN BUCHAREST-BANEASA AREA
Authors: Constantina Chireceanu
Abstract: The European cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L.) is the most important harmful insect of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) in Romania. The compulsory condition to establish the optimal timing insecticide applications is the prediction of adult cherry fruit fly spring emergence, as a key factor for a successful pest management in cherry orchards. Observations on R. cerasi were carried out in sweet cherry orchard of Research-Development Institute for Plant Protection in Baneasa area during 2005 – 2007. The yellow sticky traps and effective temperature sum were used to predict first adult emergence. The first flies were captured between 14 and 25 May, corresponding to an effective temperature sum of 313.8-403.7°C. The air average temperature and rainfalls data were provided by an agro-expert system placed nearby sweet cherry orchard
Key words: pest management, cherry orchards